Citing Evidence
Text Structure
Central Idea/ Summaries
Interactions/ Influences

Why do we use textual evidence? 

To support our answers or ideas when writing. 


What is text structure? 

Is the way an author organizes a text when writing. 

In an argument, what is evidence? 

Information from a trusted source that supports the claim.


What is central idea? 

It identifies what a text is mostly about. 

In Language Arts, what are interactions? 

The way individuals, events, or ideas are connected in the text. 


What does it mean to make an inference? 

An idea or conclusion that's drawn from the information provided within the text read. 


What are the five most common types of text structures? 

Chronological, Compare & Contrast, Cause & Effect, Problem & Solution, and Description. 


What is a claim? 

Something an author believes to be true. 

Niagara Falls is one of the most beautiful sights in North America. It is on the Niagara River about halfway between Lake Ontario and Lake Erie. Niagara Falls is on the American and Canadian border. The American Falls is 167 feet high. On the Canadian side, the Horseshoe Falls is 161 feet high.

What is the main idea of the paragraph?

Niagara Falls is one of the most beautiful sights in North America.

What does it mean to be influenced? 

To be changed or effected. 


Crack! Thunder struck and rain poured. Max stared blankly out the window, trying to contain his emotions that raged like the weather. He was beginning to lose it. Dropping the kite from his hand, Max broke out into full sobs. His mother comforted him, "There, there, Max. We'll just find something else to do." She began to unpack the picnic basket that was on the counter and offered him a sandwich. Max snapped, "I don't wanna sand-mich!" A flash from the sky lit up the living room. Boom! Mom sighed. 

What inference can you make about why Max is upset? What detail from the text supports your answer? 

Inference: Max is upset because the weather is preventing him from flying his kite.

Detail to support: Dropping the kite from his hand, Max broke out into full sobs.


Some countries, such as Japan, or parts of a country, like California in the United States, have a lot of earthquakes. In order to protect their clubhouse from collapse from an earthquake, Chris, Logan, and Andrew practice seismic design, or "earthquake-proofing". They built their clubhouse to hold strongly against and earthquake. 

What text structure does the author use to organize this passage? 

Problem and Solution


What 3 things should be included in a strong argument? 

Claim, reasons, and evidence. 


What is an objective summary? 

A paragraph that identifies the most important details in a text without including any personal opinions. 


Think of words that begin with the prefix Sub. For example, submarine, substitute, and subway. What does the prefix Sub mean? 

To be below or underneath something.


Every day after work Paul took his muddy boots off on the steps of the front porch. Alice would have a fit if the boots made it so far as the welcome mat. He then took off his dusty overalls and threw them into a plastic garbage bag; Alice left a new garbage bag ties to the porch railing for him every morning. On his way in the house, he dropped the garbage bag off at the washing machine and went straight up the stairs to the shower as he was instructed. He would eat dinner with her after he was "presentable", as Alice had often said. 

What inference can be made about Alice's personality? 

She is a person that likes things to be clean, neat, and in order. 


They were hardly modest, these two brash young scientists who in 1953 declared that they had "found the secret of Life". But James Watson and Francis Crick's claim was a valid one, for they had in fact discovered the structure of DNA. Watson & Crick's discovery didn't come out of the blue. As early as 1943 Osvald Avery proved what had been suspected: that DNA carries genetic information. Then in 1951 at King's college in London, Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins were studying DNA. Wilkins and Franklin used x-ray diffraction as their main tool. 

This paragraph is organized in chronological order. How does this series of events contribute to the text overall? 

To tell what events led to the discovery of DNA's structure. 


Year after year, most literature classes cover the same authors and genres. It's time that educators made a change. As a first step, hip-hop should be included in the literature curriculum. After all, hip-hop is simply another form of poetry, as are all song lyrics. The verses of hip-hop have rhyme schemes, rhythms, and meters. In addition, hip-hop lyrics deal with the same timeless themes as other forms of poetry, including the challenges of growing up. In many ways, today's hip-hop artists are modern versions of Shakespeare & Emily Dickinson with a fresh perspective. 

The author believes that hip-hop should be included in the literature curriculum. How does he support this claim? 

By describing how hip-hop is like the content already being taught in language arts classes. 


How does an author develop the central idea of a text? 

By using facts, examples, reasons, or descriptions to expand on the topic of the text. 


What challah looks and tastes like depends on where you live and who your ancestors were. Europeans developed a soft bread and twisted or braided it into a loaf using six strands of dough. For many of today’s Jewish families, this tradition holds, but that is not true everywhere. Libyan bakers sometimes soak challah in orange blossom water, and Spanish cooks may bake pumpkin into their challah. In parts of Africa, bakers sprinkle challah with seeds and spices or drench it in honey. The final product can look like anything from a turban to a turtle, from a crown to a crane. A loaf shaped like the head of a lion may represent bravery, while one shaped like a key is a symbol of abundance. But no matter what it looks like, one thing is certain: challah baking always smells heavenly! 

How Have European bakers influenced the way challah is made today? 

By developing a soft bread that is braided into a loaf. 


Today was a special day in Ms. Smith’s class. Some of the children were putting finishing touches on cardboard mailboxes. After coloring a cool flame on the side of his racecar mailbox, Johnny hopped off his chair, strutted over to Veronica’s desk, and dropped a small white envelope into her princess castle mailbox. Veronica blushed and played with her hair. While this was happening, Bartleby was frantically trying to put a small white envelope into everyone’s mailbox. Bartleby pulled out a medium-sized red envelope from his pocket, blushed, and tried to put it in Veronica’s mailbox, but it wouldn’t fit. Bartleby struggled with it for a few seconds and then ran off with the envelope. Veronica rolled her eyes and popped her gum.

 Make an inference and determine which boy Veronica likes. Which detail from the text supports your answer. 

Inference: Veronica likes Johnny. 

Detail to support answer: Johnny hopped off his chair, strutted over to Veronica’s desk, and dropped a small white envelope into her princess castle mailbox. Veronica blushed and played with her hair. 


Do you like watching cartoons? If you answered yes, you are not alone. People have been enjoying cartoons in theaters and on television for more than 100 years. These moving pictures have captured the imaginations and hearts of children and adults all around the world. One such person, Japanese artist Osamu Tezuka, was so inspired by cartoons that he created his own highly stylized version called anime. The word anime comes from animēshon, which means "animated drawings." It refers to animated films and series produced in Japan. Anime is known for its bold and colorful graphics, dynamic characters, and compelling storylines. While American animation appeals to children, anime attracts audiences of all ages. Today, anime is more popular than ever. 

Why did the author include the information about Osamu Tezuka in this paragraph? 

It shows how his creation of anime influenced cartoons over the years. 


Unless you claim your car or truck as a business expense, then leasing a car is probably not going to be advantageous for you. Though some people like the idea of leasing because they want to drive a new car every couple of years, there are some good reasons why purchasing a car makes more financial sense. When you lease a car, you are limited in how many miles you can drive each year. Limits usually range between twelve and fifteen thousand miles. If you go over you have to pay a penalty, sometimes as much as twenty‐five cents per mile. 

What is the author's belief about  buying and leasing cars? 

The author believes that purchasing a car makes more financial sense. 


                       The Origins of Halloween

Before you put on that skeleton costume and rove door-to-door pandering for candy, take a minute to reflect on this tradition. Halloween is believed to have come from an ancient Celtic festival dating back some 2,000 years. November 1st was the Celtic New Year and marked the end of summer to the Celts. They celebrated on its eve by wearing costumes made of animal skins and dancing around bon fires. Over the next two millennia, this primitive celebration grew to be the candy fueled costume ball that we know today.

A summary of this paragraph should include...  

The title and details that show how Halloween began. 


Kathryn Bigelow is best known for her influential movies she created in Hollywood, but this wasn't always her dream. Kathryn was born in San Carlos, California, on November 27, 1951. Her father liked drawing cartoons in his spare time. This inspired Kathryn's lifelong love of art and painting. After graduating from high school, she was accepted to the San Francisco Art Institute. For two years, Kathryn developed her talent for painting. She later won a scholarship to the Whitney Museum in New York City, where she studied conceptual art. This led to Kathryn's interest in a different art form—film. Kathryn eventually attended Columbia University. There, she switched her focus to film theory and criticism.

What impact did Kathryn's father have on her life?

He sparked her interest in art and painting.

Click to zoom