East Asia
Americas, concepts

This river's large floodplain allowed a complex society to arise in ancient Egypt.

What is the Nile River?


After Aryan migration, in ancient Indian society, this was a hierarchical system of strict hereditary divisions between people based on their occupations and social roles in society.

What is caste OR the caste system?


This Sumerian hero had been a king of a city-state in 2750 BCE, and his accomplishments and epic adventures expanded into Mesopotamian mythology and folklore.

Who is Gilgamesh?


This is a mix of different cultures or nations ruled over by a centralized government, usually spread over a large territory.

What is an empire?


The fertile land around these two rivers facilitated the growth of complex agricultural societies in Mesopotamia.

What are the Tigris and the Euphrates?


At the end of the period known as the Middle Kingdom, this society invaded Egypt, captured Memphis, and ruled the country for over 100 years.

Who are the Hyksos?


In China, many factions fought against one another in this tumultuous time period, which came after the Zhou dynasty and was ended when China was unified under the Qin dynasty.

What is the Warring States Period?


This Achaemenid ruler divided the empire into 23 districts and greatly expanded its borders by conquest as well.

Who is Darius?

This is an alloy of copper and tin, harder and more durable than copper.

What is bronze?

According to the ancient historian Polyaenus, the armies of Cambyses II won an important battle against the Egyptians by carrying these animals with them into battle.

What are cats?


Thanks to the migration and conquests of this people group starting around 3000 BC, millions of people in Africa still speak a language of this language family.

What is Bantu?


According to this doctrine, people who lived virtuous lives could expect rebirth into a higher and more honorable existence, such as higher caste.

What is karma?


This religion was especially popular during Achaemenid and Sassanid control of Persia.  

What is Zoroastrianism?


When Maya society was at its height, this was the most powerful and influential of the Maya city-states.

What is Tikal?


Messengers along the Persian Royal Road would persevere, not stopped "by snow nor rain nor heat nor darkness." Accounts of their determination inspired the unofficial motto of this modern day organization.

What is the U.S. Postal Service OR U.S. Mail?


This battle took place between Egypt and the Hittites, involving tens of thousands of soldiers, including over 2,000 chariots.  It ended inconclusively.

What is the battle of Kadesh?


This legendary east Asian figure encouraged the values of hard work, maintaining harmony with others, and performing selfless service to society

Who is Yu?


The Achaemenids appointed these people to rule different regions of their empire.

What are satraps?


These dominant types of societies tended to be expansionist, have complex religious traditions, and a high cultural output.  They left a lasting historical significant and greatly influenced later societies.

What is classical OR What are classical societies?

This is the sacred language of ancient India, and it bears important similarities to many languages all over Europe and Asia due to the Indo-European migrations that took place beginning in 3000 BCE.

What is Sanskrit?


This kingdom was on the Nile River, south of Egypt. It had a similar level of power and complexity in the 2000 BCE, but was not as prosperous as Egypt.

What is Nubia?


The Upanishads taught that each person participates in a larger cosmic order and is one with a universal soul, called this.

What is Brahman?


This person conquered many Sumerian city-states in the 2300s BCE.  He created one of the first empires, financed by demanding tribute and taxing trade between cities.

Who is Sargon of Akkad?


This complex society thrived in Mesoamerica before the Maya. In a sense, the Maya achievements built on their cultural and technological foundations.

Who are the Olmec?


This Chinese philosopher interpreted the words of Confucius. He was a strong believer in the importance of justice, and he believe human nature tended toward goodness.

Who is Mencius?

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