The Enlightenment
The French Revolution
Napoleon & The Congress of Vienna
Latin American Independence

Thomas Hobbes wrote that a country's citizens gave up their freedom to an all-powerful government in exchange for this.

What is safety and security?


In France's Ancien Regime, this group encompassed 97% if the country's people, but had only one of three votes in the Estates General.

What was the Third Estate?


After gaining fame as a general, Napoleon initially gained power when he was appointed to this 5-member committee which had been empowered to restore order in France.

What was the Directory?


Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin were the leaders of independence movements on this continent.

What is South America?


John Locke argued that people did not give ALL their freedom to government - they retained these, which they got from a higher power.

What are natural rights?


When the Estates General met in 1789, members of the Third Estate withdrew and declared themselves the National Assembly.  They took this Oath, in which they vowed to write a Constitution for the nation of France.

What was the Tennis Court Oath?


Napoleon spread the ideals of anti-hereditary monarchy, natural rights, and the Napoleonic law code throughout this continent.

What is Europe?


Father Miguel Hidalgo, Jose Morelos, and Augustin de Iturbe were the leaders of the independence movement in this country.

What is Mexico?


Voltaire added these two freedoms to Locke's original list of natural rights ("life, liberty, and property").

What are freedom of religion and freedom of speech?


The symbolic beginning of the French Revolution was the storming of this prison on July 14, 1789.

What was the Bastille?

Napoleon's fatal mistake was invading this country (just before winter).

What is Russia?


Although independence in Latin America resulted in a change in political leadership, these things remained essentially unchanged.

What were the social and economic systems?


The French philosophe wrote that in order to prevent government from abusing its power, that power should be separated among three branches.

Who was Montesquieu?


During this phase of the Revolution, peasants in the countryside attacked manor houses, burning debt records and at times killing members of the nobility.

What was the Great Fear?


These five countries were the main power players at the Congress of Vienna.

What were Great Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia, and France?


He led the revolution and independence movement in the nation of Haiti.

Who was Toussaint L'Ouverture?

Among other things, this philosophe argued that citizens did not enter into a contract WITH their government; instead, citizens contracted with each other to CREATE their government.

Who was Rousseau?


The Reign of Terror, in which thousands of people were beheaded with the guillotine, was led by this radical faction in the National Convention.

Who were the Jacobins?


One goal that was achieved at the Congress of Vienna, was to establish THIS in Europe, in order to prevent future wars.

What was a 'balance of power'?


This was the primary reason that the government of the newly-independent United States refused to support the revolution in Haiti.

What was the fact that it was led by enslaved people?