Energy
Potential
Gravity
Heat
Adaptations
100

A toy store sells a toy called a jack-in-the-box. When the box opens, a clown comes out by the movement of a spring and produces a laughing sound by using the energy stored in a battery.

Which type of potential energy do the spring and battery have?

A The spring has elastic potential energy, and the battery has chemical potential energy.

B The spring has gravitational potential energy, and the battery has elastic potential energy.

C The spring has chemical potential energy, and the battery has elastic potential energy. 

D The spring has chemical potential energy, and the battery has gravitational potential energy.

A The spring has elastic potential energy, and the battery has chemical potential energy.

100

Which type of energy in gasoline powers automobiles?

A chemical potential energy

B elastic potential energy

C electromagnetic potential energy

D gravitational potential energy

The table shows four methods that eradicate weeds growing on a farm.

Which method would be most effective in the removal of the invasive species without harming the crops?

A P

B Q

C R

D S

A chemical potential energy

C R

100

A stone is placed in a thick rubber band. The rubber band is stretched and then released. The stone rises in the air and then falls down.

Which option correctly identifies an instance when potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy?

A releasing the rubber band

B stretching the rubber band

C stone rising in the air

D stone reaching its highest point in the air

A releasing the rubber band

100

On a summer day, a puddle of water on the road heats up and evaporates, turning into water vapor. How does heat transfer occur in this situation?

A The Sun transfers heat by conduction, and the road transfers heat by convection and conduction.

B The Sun transfers heat by conduction, and the road transfers heat by radiation and convection.

C The Sun transfers heat by convection, and the road transfers heat by radiation and conduction.

D The Sun transfers heat by radiation, and the road transfers heat by convection and conduction.

D The Sun transfers heat by radiation, and the road transfers heat by convection and conduction.

100

The diagram shows some characteristics of a cow.

Which characteristic is a result of environmental influence?

A 1

B 2

C 3

D 4

Study the food chain.

What niche does the owl occupy?

A decomposer

B primary consumer

C producer

D secondary consumer

C 3

D secondary consumer

200

Which activity uses elastic potential energy?

A eating a hamburger

B stretching a rubber band

C throwing a ball

D pulling a wagon

The Chesapeake Bay waterbird food web is made up of overlapping food chains. Into which form of energy will the gulls and terns most likely transform most of the chemical energy from the food they eat?

A light energy

B mechanical energy

C solar energy

D sound energy

B stretching a rubber band

B mechanical energy

200

Four people are holding a ball of equal size and weight at four different heights (W, X, Y, and Z).

At which height will a ball have the most  gravitational potential energy?

A W

B X

C Y

D Z

A W

200

Examine the diagram of the movement of a cart with four positions (W, X, Y, and Z) labeled, as shown.

At which position will the cart have the greatest amount of kinetic energy?

A W

B X

C Y

D Z

D Z

200

A student leaves a metal spoon in a mug of hot chocolate and answers the phone. When the student returns, the metal spoon is warm to the touch.

Which transfer of thermal energy occurs between the hot chocolate and the metal spoon?

A conduction

B convection

C electromagnetism

D radiation

A conduction

200

The table shows different organisms interacting with each other to fulfill their basic requirements.

Which interaction(s) is (are) an example of parasitism?

A only 1

B only 2

C both 2 and 3

D both 3 and 1

B only 2

300

Which person demonstrates gravitational potential energy?

A A boy sits at the top of a slide.

B A man walks a dog.

C A woman reads a book.

D A girl kicks a ball.

A ball is pushed off of a block of wood and falls toward the ground. The diagram shows the various positions (1, 2, 3, and 4) of the ball during its fall.

At which position will the ball possess the greatest speed?

A A boy sits at the top of a slide.

Position 4

300

A battery is used to light a bulb.

What energy transformations are taking place?

A heat→electrical→light

B electrical→light→solar

C mechanical→light→electrical

D chemical→electrical→light

D chemical→electrical→light

300

The table shows four moving objects with different masses and speeds.

Which object has the most kinetic energy?

A Object 1

B Object 2

C Object 3

D Object 4

D Object 4

300

Which source is the greatest source of radiant energy?

A earthquakes

B Moon

C oceans

D Sun

The image shows a roller coaster car at five positions along its track.

For which parts of the motion is some part of the kinetic energy of the car transformed into potential energy?

A when moving from 1 to 2 and 4 to 5

B when moving from 2 to 3 and 3 to 4

C when moving from 2 to 4 and 4 to 5

D when moving from 1 to 2 and 2 to 4

D Sun

A when moving from 1 to 2 and 4 to 5

300

Which statement is an example of mutualism?

A A koala eats eucalyptus leaves, and it is unharmed by the poison in the leaves.

B A deer tick feeds on the blood of a deer, and the deer loses blood and nutrients.

C A plover bird feeds on food stuck in a crocodile’s teeth, and the crocodile gets its teeth cleaned in the process.

D A hookworm feeds on the small intestine of a dog, causing the dog to lose weight and become weak.

C A plover bird feeds on food stuck in a crocodile’s teeth, and the crocodile gets its teeth cleaned in the process.

400

Which activity represents gravitational potential energy?

A a paper being burned

B a bird sitting in a tree

C a slingshot being pulled back

D a rubber band being stretched

Which list most accurately shows the flow of energy in an environment?

A Producers, Herbivores, Carnivores, Top Predators

B Herbivores, Producers, Carnivores, Top Predators

C Carnivores, Producers, Herbivores, Top Predators

D Producers, Carnivores, Herbivores, Top Predators

B a bird sitting in a tree

A Producers, Herbivores, Carnivores, Top Predators

400

A group of students built a ramp and rolled steel balls of different sizes down the ramp onto the floor. Then they measured how far each ball rolled from the bottom of the ramp.

Which statement correctly explains the differences in the distances that the balls rolled?

A Friction increases as mass increases.

B Velocity increases as mass increases.

C Acceleration increases as mass increases.

D Kinetic energy increases as mass increases.

D Kinetic energy increased as mass increased.

400

Which factors affect the amount of kinetic energy of an object?

A height and mass

B height and volume

C speed and mass

D speed and volume

C speed and mass

400

A student places a cube of butter at one end of a metal rod, suspends the rod, and places a burning candle below it, as shown.

After several seconds, the butter starts to melt. Which statement explains what causes the butter to melt?


A The air around the candle flame warms up and conducts heat from the candle to the butter cube.

B Heat radiates from the surface of the metal and warms the butter cube attached to it.

C Warm air around the candle rises due to convection, reaches the butter cube, and causes it to melt.

D The heat transfers from one end of the rod to the butter cube at the other end by conduction.

D The heat transfers from one end of the rod to the butter cube at the other end by conduction.

400

Aphids are insects that feed on plant sap, causing growth to slow, leaves to wilt, and in some cases, the death of the plant. Ladybugs, which also live on plants, feed on aphids.

What is the type of relationship between ladybugs and plants?

A competition

B mutualism

C parasitism

D predation

An invasive fish species feeds on suspended plankton and algae in water. Within its five-year lifespan a single fish produces about 5 million eggs, 100,000 of which reach adulthood.

How can the introduction of the invasive fish species affect the aquatic ecosystem?

A It increases the amounts of suspended plankton and algae in the water.

B It increases the productivity of the ecosystem due to a greater number of consumers.

C It decreases the biodiversity of the ecosystem due to a rapid increase in the number of fish.

D It decreases the amounts of food available to native aquatic species that depend on plankton and algae.

B mutualism

D It decreases the amounts of food available to native aquatic species that depend on plankton and algae.

500

A bowling ball and baseball move at the same speed.

How does the kinetic energy of each ball compare, and why?

A The bowling ball has greater kinetic energy because it has more mass than the baseball.

B The baseball has greater kinetic energy because it has less mass than the bowling ball.

C The bowling ball has less kinetic energy because it has a larger volume than the baseball.

D The bowling ball and the baseball have the same kinetic energy because they have the same speed.

A The bowling ball has greater kinetic energy because it has more mass than the baseball.

500

The Sun heats the surface of a road during the day. The arrows in the image show the direction of the movement of cold and hot air.

What are the modes of heat transfer involved?

A condensation and conduction

B conduction and convection

C convection and radiation

D radiation and condensation

C convection and radiation

500

Examine the image of a room in a house.

What is the best explanation for how the room is warmed?

A conduction from the Sun outside

B conduction from the fireplace

C convection from the Sun outside

D radiation from the fireplace

D radiation from the fireplace

500

The diagram shows a food chain.

How does the common toad receive nitrogen in the food chain?

A by feeding on the gray slug

B by feeding directly on the lichens

C by being preyed upon by the grass snake

D by competing with other common toads

A by feeding on the gray slug

500

Mushrooms and other fungi play an important role as decomposers in ecosystems. What is the primary purpose of decomposers?

A They provide food for desert consumers.

B They serve as the only site of nitrogen fixation.

C They use energy from the Sun to make food.

D They break down waste and return nutrients to the soil.

D They break down waste and return nutrients to the soil.

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