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100

How do viruses reproduce? How does this differ from other organisms? 

Dare:

Pretend like you are Jump Roping

Viruses reproduce by injecting their nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) into a host cell. Then use the host cell to make more viruses.  

100

Do mutations make viruses more deadly? Why or why not? 

Yes. as new strains of the virus emerge that our immune system are not ready for.

100

How do most archaea obtain energy?

Phototrophic archaea use sunlight as a source of energy; however, oxygen–generating photosynthesis does not occur in any archaea. Instead, in archaea such as the Halobacteria, light-activated ion pumps generate ion gradients by pumping ions out of the cell across the plasma membrane.

100

How does the gut bacteria differ between the small intestine and the large intestine?

The large intestine is much broader than the small intestine and takes a much straighter path through your belly, or abdomen. The purpose of the large intestine is to absorb water and salts from the material that has not been digested as food, and get rid of any waste products left over.

100

How can you prevent food poisoning?

  1. Clean. Wash your hands and work surfaces before, during, and after preparing food. ...
  2. Separate. Separate raw meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs from ready-to-eat foods. ...
  3. Cook. Cook food to the right internal temperature to kill harmful bacteria. ...
  4. Chill. Keep your refrigerator 40°F or below.
200

What kinds of nucleic acids can viruses have?

DNA or RNA 

200

Is a virus a living thing? Why or why not?

Dare:

Act like a chicken.


It's debatable.

Some say virus is not living 

200

Describe how bacteria reproduce?

Dare:

Bark like a dog twice:

Bacteria reproduce by binary fission. In this process the bacterium, which is a single cell, divides into two identical daughter cells. ... The bacterial cell then elongates and splits into two daughter cells each with identical DNA to the parent cell. Each daughter cell is a clone of the parent cell.

200

What can happen if something causes a reduction of "good" bacteria in your gut?

This is known as dysbiosis. Both dysbiosis and a reduction in gut flora diversity have been linked to insulin resistance, weight gain, inflammation, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer.

200

How are bacterial diseases treated?

Many human illnesses are caused by infection with either bacteria or viruses. Most bacterial diseases can be treated with antibiotics, although antibiotic-resistant strains are starting to emerge.

300

What is the importance of the "Envelope" to a virus? What is the envelope made of? 

 THe viral envelope surrounds the capsid or protein coat. The envelope, which is made of lipids, allows the virus to fuse with a cell membrane making infection easier.

300

Name four examples of human diseases caused by a virus.

Dare: 

Smile until it's your turn again

Aids, cold sores, cold, Covid 19, diarrheal diseases

300

How do bacteria exchange DNA?

Genetic exchanges among bacteria occur by several mechanisms. In transformation, the recipient bacterium takes up extracellular donor DNA. In transduction, donor DNA packaged in a bacteriophage infects the recipient bacterium. In conjugation, the donor bacterium transfers DNA to the recipient by mating.

300

What is one of the uses of serotonin in the body?

Dare:

Place a sticky note on your nose to your next turn.

Serotonin is the key hormone that stabilizes our mood, feelings of well-being, and happiness. This hormone impacts your entire body. It enables brain cells and other nervous system cells to communicate with each other. Serotonin also helps with sleeping, eating, and digestion.

300

How common is natural resistance to HIV?

Dare: 

Answer the next question

A small proportion of humans show partial or apparently complete inborn resistance to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. The main mechanism is a mutation of the gene encoding CCR5, which acts as a co-receptor for HIV. It is estimated that the proportion of people with some form of resistance to HIV is under 10%.

400

What is a difference between the lytic cycle of a virus and the lysogenic cycle? 

During the lysogenic cycle, viral DNA fuses into the host cell's chromosomes (genetic material). This does not happen in the lytic cycle. THe lytic cycle makes new viruses, whereas the lysogenic cycle incorporates the viral DNA into the host cell's genome, where it can stay for many years. 

400

Describe two ways archaea are different from bacteria?


Bacteria contain peptidoglycan in the cell wall; archaea do not. The cell membrane in bacteria is a lipid bilayer; in archaea, it can be a lipid bilayer or a monolayer. Bacteria contain fatty acids on the cell membrane, whereas archaea contain phytanyl.

400

What is transformation involving bacteria?

Bacterial transformation is a process of horizontal gene transfer by which some bacteria take up foreign genetic material (naked DNA) from the environment. It was first reported in Streptococcus pneumoniae by Griffith in 1928. DNA as the transforming principle was demonstrated by Avery et al in 1944.

400

How are bacteria helpful in ecosystems?

Bacteria are important in practically all ecosystems because many bacteria are decomposers. They break down dead materials and waste products and recycle nutrients back into the environment. The recycling of nutrients, such as nitrogen, by bacteria, is essential for living organisms.

400

Describe two ways that bacteria obtain nutrients and energy?

Bacteria can obtain energy and nutrients by performing photosynthesis, decomposing dead organisms and wastes, or breaking down chemical compounds. Bacteria can obtain energy and nutrients by establishing close relationships with other organisms, including mutualistic and parasitic relationships.


500

What is one way a flu virus can kill a human?

A flu virus can hurt or kill a human by causing the fluid to build up in the lungs. THe person actually drowns.

500

How can archaea reproduction be distinct from bacterial reproduction?

Archaea reproduce asexually by binary fission, fragmentation, or budding; unlike bacteria, no known species of Archaea form endospores.

500

What is binary fission?

Binary fission is the process through which asexual reproduction happens in bacteria. During binary fission, a single organism becomes two independent organisms. ... Mitochondria and other organelles must reproduce via binary fission before mitosis so each cell has ample organelles.

500

What are three examples of diseases caused by bacteria?

  • Bacteria.
  • Infectious disease.
  • Cholera.
  • Leprosy.
  • Tuberculosis.
  • Plague.
  • Syphilis.
  • Anthrax.
500

How are bacteria helpful in ecosystems? 

Dare: 

Meows like a Cat


Bacteria play an essential role in ecosystems as decomposers.

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