Enter CaTerminologytegory Name

What are the benefits of good oral hygiene?

List 10 

· Brushing removes particles, plaque, and bacteria; massages the gums; and relieves unpleasant odors and tastes.

· Flossing removes tartar at the gum line.

· Rinsing removes particles and toothpaste.

· Base the frequency of care on the condition of the oral cavity, risk for aspiration of saliva, and the patient’s level of comfort.

· Some patients (e.g., stroke, trauma to oral cavity, patient with endotracheal tube) require oral care as often as every 1 to 2 hours.

· Use antimicrobial toothpastes and 0.12% CHG oral rinses for patients at increased risk for poor oral hygiene (e.g., older adults and patients with cognitive impairments and who are immunocompromised)

· Patients with diabetes mellitus and who are on chemotherapy frequently experience periodontal disease. Therefore, they need to visit a dentist every 3 to 4 months, clean their teeth up to 4 times a day, and handle oral tissues gently with a minimum of trauma.

· Xerostomia, bruxism, and dental caries may be present with patients who are methamphetamine users. Cravings for sugary sweets may cause decay and gum disease.

· Patients may depend on their caregivers for oral care. Being unconscious or having an artificial airway (e.g., endotracheal or tracheal tubes) increases the susceptibility for patients to have drying of salivary secretions because they are unable to eat or drink, unable to swallow, and frequently breathe through the mouth.

· Unconscious patients often have a reduced gag reflex, or they cannot swallow salivary secretions that accumulate in the mouth. Pooling of salivary secretions in the back of the throat harbors microorganism growth. These secretions often contain gram-negative bacteria that cause pneumonia if aspirated into the lungs. Proper oral hygiene requires keeping the mucosa moist and removing secretions that contribute to infection. While providing hygiene, protect the patient from choking and aspiration and use topical CHG, especially in ventilated patients (see Skill 40.3). Current evidence shows that use of CHG with oral hygiene reduces the risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia


What is edentulous

• Without teeth; older adult may wear complete or partial dentures


What is stomatitis?

Inflammation of the oral mucosa; causes burning, pain, and change in food and fluid tolerance


What are common nursing diagnoses related to hygiene?

· Activity intolerance

· Bathing self-care deficit

· Impaired physical mobility

· Impaired oral mucous membrane

· Ineffective health maintenance

· Risk for infection


What is cheilitis

• Cracked lips


What is glossitis

· Inflamed tongue


Fill in the blank



What is gingivitis?

· Inflammation of the gums  


What is xerostomia?

· Dry mouth


List appropriate foot care points for high-risk populations.

All 13 

• Examine all skin surfaces of the feet, including the areas between the toes and over the entire sole of the foot.

• Poorly fitting shoes often irritate the heels, soles, and sides of the feet.

• Inspection of the feet for lesions includes noting areas of dryness, inflammation, or cracking. (Chapman, 2017).

• Chronic foot problems are common in older adults, who often experience dry feet because of a decrease in sebaceous gland secretion, dehydration, or poor condition of footwear.

• People are often unaware of foot or nail problems until pain or discomfort occurs.

• Assess patients with diseases that affect peripheral circulation and sensation for the adequacy of circulation and sensation of the feet.

• Diabetic neuropathy and decreased peripheral circulation put people with diabetes at greater risk for foot problems.

• Daily inspection and preventive foot care help maintain ulcer-free feet (Chapman, 2017).

• Inspect a patient’s shoes and inspect feet for areas of blistering or abrasion from improper shoes or fit (Jeffcoate et al., 2018).

• Palpate the dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial pulses, and assess for intact sensation to light touch, pinprick, and temperature (Ball et al., 2019).

• Observe a patient’s gait. Painful foot disorders or decreased sensation cause limping or an unnatural gait.

• Ask whether the patient has foot discomfort and determine factors that aggravate the pain.

• Foot problems sometimes result from bone or muscular alterations or wearing poorly fitting footwear.


What is dental caries

· Tooth decay produced by interaction of food with bacteri


What is mucositis?

Painful inflammation of oral mucous membranes

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