Literary Text Structures
Determining Word Meaning
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Characters and Plot

After begging my parents to get a dog for weeks, my dad woke me up early one Saturday morning. He wouldn't tell me where we were going as he drove over 30 minutes. Next, we arrived at our location: the dog pound! We then walked around, looking at all the puppies. Finally, I chose a black lab and named him Fluff.



Use context clues to determine the meaning of "detest." Everyone at the parted wanted garbage pizza, except Tim, who detests vegetables.

to strongly dislike


The person who tells the story.

What is the narrator?


Ms. McClenton's mother's first name is named after a state. What might that be?



The problem, struggle, or obstacle facing a character or characters in a story.

What is a conflict?


Labrador Retrievers are a popular breed of dogs because of their even temperament and desire to please their human owners. They an be yellow, brown or black and are medium-large dogs with an average weight of 65 pounds. Labs are often trained to be aids for people with disabilities. They are the most popular dog breed in the United States!



Use context clues to determine the meaning of "alter." Suzie's grandpa didn't know she was coming along on the fishing trip and now he has to alter his plans.

to change


In this point of view, the narrator is a character within the story and, therefore, you'll see "I" and "my" a lot.

What is first-person point of view?


A lesson or moral that goes beyond the specific events of the text

What is the theme of a text?


There are two types of characterization. One directly talks about the character. One requires you to make inferences about the character.

Direct Characterization

Indirect Characterization


Chihuahuas and Collies are both popular dog breeds in the U.S. Both breeds are great with children and protective of their homes. Chihuahuas are very small dogs and can be quite difficult to train since they're not very smart! By contrast, Collies are medium to large dogs and are known for their great intelligence.

Compare and Contrast

Use context clues to determine the meaning of "remorse." Bob and his friend had a huge fight and he ended up calling him some names he didn't mean. Powerful feelings of remorse stayed with him the remainder of the day.
regret or feeling bad about something

What is Ms. McClenton's middle name?



A short retelling of a text, including the main idea and most important details. Hint: you might use the "someone, wanted, but, so" organizer to do this.

What is a summary?


Fill in the blanks for the parts of plot: exposition, __________, rising action, ____________, ________________, resolution.

conflict, climax, falling action


Do you take your dog for a walk, or does your dog take YOU for a walk? Leash pulling is a common issue with puppies, especially large breeds. Leash pulling can easily lead to your dog getting free of his leash or into trouble. To leash train your dog, you must stop and stand still every time he pulls on the leash. When the dog calms down, praise him, wait a minute and then begin to walk slowly.

problem and solution


Use context clues to determine the meaning of "audible." A dog whistle makes a high-pitched sound that is only audible to dogs.

able to hear


Guess ONE of the Ms. McClenton's THREE brothers name.

1. Chris

2. Jojo or Joseph

3. Antonio or Tony


A conclusion you make from using what you know (background) PLUS clues from the text (text evidence).

What is an inference?


The hero of a story might be called a protagonist, while the villain might be called this.

What is an antagonist?


Every year in the U. S. up to 8 million unwanted dogs and cats enter animal shelters. Why are there so many unwanted pets? First, many people do not spay or neuter their pets. Also, people still buy their animals from breeders instead of adopting homeless animals. Sadly, some people give up on their pets and decide they're too much trouble to care for. As a result, shelters are overcrowded, leaving young energetic pets trapped in cages and lonely.

Cause and Effect


Use context clues to determine the meaning of "feign." Jane got it into her mind that she could get out of studying for any test just by feigning illness the night before the exam.

to fake or pretend


This point of view is rarely used in stories, but is often used in poetry, or perhaps instructional or "how-to" texts. You'll see words like "you" and "your"

What is second-person point of view?


"Do unto others as you'd want done unto you" 

What does this mean in other words?

If you want someone to treat you a certain way, you have to treat them a certain way. Show equal treatment.


What is the resolution or theme in "The Circuit" and the "Grapes of Wrath?"

Keep Moving.