Author's Purpose
Author's Point of View
Establishing a Claim
Evaluate Arguments & Claims
Support Claims
100
What is the author's purpose for the following paragraph? “Dinosaurs had adaptations which helped make them successful. They had an upright posture, with the legs underneath the body. This transformed their whole life-style. There were other features. Some of the smaller dinosaurs had feathers, and were probably warm-blooded.” A. to entertain B. to inform C. to persuade
B. to inform
100
The people who organize the Olympics look at different things to decide if a sport should be in the games. Among those things are a sport’s appeal to young people, its popularity, and its acceptance around the world. People have recently attempted to get baseball into the Olympics. It seems like the kind of sport that should be in the games because it fits what the people who run the Olympics are looking for. Baseball is played by people of all ages. Kids’ leagues, high schools, and colleges are never lacking for players. That tells us that the sport appeals to young people. Many people attend baseball games and millions of fans listen to them on the radio or watch them on televisions, computers, and phones. That proves that baseball is popular. Baseball is also played around the world. Many of the best players in the United States come here from other countries. This tells us that the sport is accepted worldwide. Young people like baseball. Millions of people enjoy baseball games. Baseball is played around the world. A sport this popular should be in the Olympics. How does the author present his or her viewpoint in the text? A.) By showing that baseball has the qualities that the people who run the Olympics look for in a sport B.) By claiming that many of the best baseball players in the world only want to play baseball in the U.S. C.) By explaining that baseball already has many dedicated fans who watch it in the Olympic Games D.) By presenting evidence that proves that baseball is mostly popular among young people in the U.S.
A.) By showing that baseball has the qualities that the people who run the Olympics look for in a sport
100
Emma wrote this paragraph to begin her argument: The first things to be cut when the school budget falls short are usually the arts—music, drama, and art classes. School will go on, just without the opportunity for students to learn to sing, play instruments, dance, perform, or create art. These cuts imply that the arts are not integral to a formal education. On the contrary, arts are essential to producing well-rounded students who are engaged in education and ready for the real world that awaits them. Which sentence from the paragraph states Emma's claim? A) The first things to be cut when the school budget falls short are usually the arts—music, drama, and art classes. B) School will go on, just without the opportunity for students to learn to sing, play instruments, dance, perform, or create art. C) These cuts imply that the arts are not integral to a formal education. D) On the contrary, arts are essential to producing well-rounded students who are engaged in education and ready for the real world that awaits them.
D) On the contrary, arts are essential to producing well-rounded students who are engaged in education and ready for the real world that awaits them.
100
Ruby is writing an argument about icebergs. Read her claim and reason, and then answer the question. CLAIM: By studying icebergs, biologists gain valuable information about many other parts of the natural world. REASON: Studying icebergs helps biologists to learn about life in the ocean. Which of the following sentences should she use as evidence to prove the reason is true? A) Icebergs can affect ocean currents a great distance from the icebergs themselves. B) The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea created the International Ice Patrol in 1913. C) The lifespan of an iceberg is only a few years, but the glaciers from which they come can exist for as long as three thousand years. D) Recent studies have shown that water surrounding an iceberg is full of sea creatures that feed on nutrients released by the iceberg as it melts.
D) Recent studies have shown that water surrounding an iceberg is full of sea creatures that feed on nutrients released by the iceberg as it melts.
100
Mr. Donaldson wants his students to write a convincing argument on the topic of using robots to perform complex medical procedures. What are the components of a convincing argument? A) a claim, logical reasons, and relevant evidence B) a claim, current sources, and interesting reasons C) Internet research, accurate reasons, and logical evidence D) Internet research, logical sources, and an accurate claim
A) a claim, logical reasons, and relevant evidence
200
What is the author's purpose for the following paragraph? “Chocolate milk should not be allowed at schools. Every carton of chocolate milk adds an extra eight grams of sugar to a child’s diet; so it’s possible to smuggle five extra pounds into a child’s diet in chocolate milk alone during one year of school. This sugar in milk is also worrisome because of its known link to obesity. ” A. to entertain B. to inform C. to persuade
C. to persuade
200
The average school day for kindergartners is getting longer, and it's paying off in improved reading skills. Public schoolchildren who attended kindergarten for a full day showed more improvement than those enrolled in half-day programs. This improvement will be carried on in elementary school and even high school. These children will be able to get better jobs when they are adults. What is the author’s viewpoint on full day kindergarten? A.) Objective B.) Biased Positive C.) Biased Negative Give at least one detail from the text to support your answer
B.) Biased Positive Details to support: The phrase “paying off” Mentions improved reading skills. Improvement carries on through schools. Can get better paying jobs as adults.
200
Jacob is writing an argument in support of this claim. "Although multiple choice tests give a good indication of students' performance and eliminate grading bias, they do not promote a complete critical thinking process or allow for testing of higher level thinking." Which reason should Jacob include in his argument to support his claim? A) Short response items, on the other hand, require the test taker to fully analyze the issue under study and provide a clear answer in his or her own words. B) Most standardized tests rely on the multiple choice format, so they accurately reflect students' performance. C) Because a multiple choice format provides conclusions, inferences, and evaluations within the answer choices, the test taker does not have to do all the thinking. D) Without the multiple choice format, administrators would have difficulty standardizing the grading of tests, which is a necessity given the importance placed on the results.
C) Because a multiple choice format provides conclusions, inferences, and evaluations within the answer choices, the test taker does not have to do all the thinking.
200
Aaron is writing an article for the school newspaper about the importance of extracurricular activities. He wants to express to his college bound peers what kinds of activities will make an application stand out to a university. Which expert should Aaron consult for his article to provide the best expert opinion for the topic? A) a peer B) a school psychologist C) a college admissions officer D) a student at a local university
C) a college admissions officer
200
In Cameron’s argument on the artistic value of video games, she wrote this introduction. Roger Ebert once wrote an article titled, “Video Games Can Never Be Art.” In this article he wrote that no game is “worthy of comparison with the great dramatists, poets, filmmakers, novelists, and composers.” This may be true right now, but it’s inevitable that video games will rise to have just as much or more artistic importance than film, poetry, theater, and television. We’re witnessing the childhood phase of the dominant art form of the future. Which of the following pieces of evidence supports her claim? A) The museum of modern art now includes video games. B) The video game industry is a multi-billion dollar industry. C) Advances in video game graphics are happening faster and faster. D) Video games are no longer the domain of children, as more and more adults are starting to enjoy them.
A) The museum of modern art now includes video games.
300
A novel about a young man who learns the importance of teamwork while climbing to the top of Mount Everest. What is the author's purpose for the sentence above? A. to entertain B. to inform C. to persuade
A. to entertain
300
The trend toward full day kindergarten programs in public schools is taking its toll on the young children of today. Is this something we want to put on our children’s backs?  Recent studies showing improved reading skills may be misleading. This improvement in reading is unlikely to carry on as these children progress through elementary school.  What is the author’s viewpoint on full day kindergarten? A.) Objective B.) Biased Positive C.) Biased Negative Give at least one detail from the text to support your answer
C.) Biased Negative Phrase “taking its toll” Recent studies are misleading. Studies show improvements do not carry on.
300
Read this reason Jacob wants to include in his argument. An essay item tests higher level thinking, challenging students to apply concepts and solve problems while proving their mastery of language, organization, and logic. Which piece of evidence should Jacob use to support this reason? A) A student survey concluded that “multiple choice items have both drawbacks and benefits, just like essay items.” B) A newly released article stated that “test makers often provide general rubrics for grading essay items that help graders eliminate bias in their markings.” C) In an online interview, a teacher stated, “On the other hand, essay items present a grading challenge because implementing bias free parameters for grading is nearly impossible.” D) A recent study found that “essay items present grading challenges but offer more flexibility in the thinking skills under examination.”
D) A recent study found that “essay items present grading challenges but offer more flexibility in the thinking skills under examination.”
300
Jessa is writing a persuasive essay about the benefits of taking public transportation. Some of the evidence she has gathered is: 1. My dad says that public transportation is the fastest way to get downtown during rush hour. 2.Public transportation is expensive, but so is keeping a car on the road. 3. It is not safe to drive a car these days with so many crazy drivers on the road downtown during rush hour. 4. According to researchers, public transportation is beneficial to the environment, because it helps to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and conserves fossil fuels. She wants to present a solid argument with good evidence. Which of the above should Jessa include in her essay? A) statements 1 and 2 B) statements 1 and 4 C) statements 2 and 3 D) statements 2 and 4
D) statements 2 and 4
300
Benjamin is researching the problem of obesity in the U.S. His claim is that convenience stores should be required to have a variety of fresh fruit and vegetables available for sale throughout the year. He wants to include the following reason to support his claim: Working families in urban areas are more likely to be obese because they have limited access to healthy foods, but, if they had more places to purchase healthy foods, they’d eat them more often. Which of the following resources is most likely to provide Benjamin with relevant, accurate evidence? A) a .edu website on the health benefits of body weight exercises B) a .gov website article on how poverty is associated with weight gain C) a blog by a lifelong organic farmer about the drawbacks of convenience store junk food D) a gym chain’s article on how to burn calories and lose weight
B) a .gov website article on how poverty is associated with weight gain
400
You may have noticed, whether you have bought music, games, or clothing, that the price on the tag may not be the price you pay. The item may be marked as 99¢, but when the cashier rings it up for you, the price might have risen to more than a dollar! You are charged a sales tax. How much above one dollar you pay is determined by the state in which you reside. Each state sets its own percentage to collect for sales tax. It may be as low as 4 percent or as high as 9 percent. Several states don’t charge a sales tax. What are taxes? Taxes are fees that go to the government (state or federal) and are used to pay the government’s expenses. What is the author's purpose of this writing? A. to entertain B. to persuade C. to inform
C. to inform
400
Parents should not be helping their child with homework. Teachers state that the point of homework is to practice a skill that had been taught in class. If parents help too much with homework, then the child is missing out on practicing the skill. Homework is also given so kids can learn to work independently, which will help them later in life. By helping too much with homework, sometimes parents are sending the message that they will always be there when things get tough-instead of letting the kids try it for themselves. What is the Author's Viewpoint, or Perspective, on parents helping with homework? A.) Objective B.) Biased Positive C.) Biased Negative Give at least one detail from the text to support your answer
C.) Biased Negative Supporting Evidence: Mentions child is missing out on practicing the skill. Kids need to learn to work independently. Parents are sending their child the wrong message.
400
Mariah writes an argument essay in support of instituting study abroad programs in high schools across the country. Which reason should she include to support her claim? A) Study abroad can be a costly enterprise, requiring the student's family to pay a fee to a management organization. B) As students return from their time abroad, they will bring with them knowledge and experience that will benefit the home school. C) Establishing study abroad programs in various high schools will take funding, dedication, and expertise of administrators. D) Study abroad programs have been found to be very effective with college students, as they are able to travel abroad independently with less supervision.
B) As students return from their time abroad, they will bring with them knowledge and experience that will benefit the home school.
400
In writing a blog about his favorite smoothie shop, Daniel claims that their smoothies are healthy, enjoyable after school snacks. Fruit and yogurt smoothies not only contain the recommended daily serving of fresh fruit but also are good sources of protein. Delicious smoothie flavors come from combining many different types of fresh fruit. Because they are blended with ice, smoothies are an excellent way to cool down on a hot day. Best of all, all natural fruit smoothies taste better than sugary processed foods. Is Daniel’s evidence sufficient to support his claim? A) The evidence is sufficient because it gives a nutritional breakdown of fruit smoothies. B) The evidence is sufficient because it gives details about nutrition, flavor, and other benefits. C) The evidence is not sufficient because it does not mention the types of fruit that are used in the smoothies. D) The evidence is not sufficient because it focuses on fruit smoothies but does not give information about other snacks.
B) The evidence is sufficient because it gives details about nutrition, flavor, and other benefits.
400
Yoko is writing an argument piece on the high cost of running and maintaining her town’s prison. She’s found the following evidence: 1. About 470,000 people work as correctional officers in the United States. 2. Russia has the second highest incarceration rate in the world. 3. The United States houses about 25 percent of the world’s prisoners. 4. American correctional officers are paid on average $40,000 per year. Which piece of evidence is most relevant to Yoko’s argument? A) statement 1 B) statement 2 C) statement 3 D) statement 4
4. American correctional officers are paid on average $40,000 per year.
500
Come to the charity basketball game on Saturday! It will be fun for the whole family! Watch the Fire Department battle the Sheriff’s Office for the winner’s trophy! Admission is $5 or free if you bring in five cans of food. Come have fun and help feed the hungry! The game begins at 2 p.m. Snacks will be sold before and during the game. All proceeds benefit the Garden City Homeless Shelter. Mark this down on your calendars—you won’t want to miss it! See you there! What is the author's purpose of this writing? A. to persuade B. to entertain C. to inform
A. to persuade
500
Cursive handwriting. Is it a skill that needs to be continued? Or is it a waste of a time? When surveyed around school, students were split with their opinions. Some kids pointed out that their handwriting is harder to read and it takes them longer when they write in cursive. They also expressed that it is becoming outdated because of computers. On the other hand, some students said that cursive writing is cool! They love reading a letter from their grandmother written in cursive, and they actually love writing in cursive themselves! The mystery of how much longer cursive will stick around for, remains. A.) Objective B.) Biased Positive C.) Biased Negative Give at least one detail from the text to support your answer
A.) Objective Text presents details from both sides In a survey, students were split. Outdated due to computers, yet some say cursive is cool.
500
Keegan wrote the following claim about the game “RockPaperScissors.” CLAIM: Players of the seemingly random game “RockPaperScissors” can continually win rounds of the game by being aware of patterns of choices and paying close attention to opponents’ choices. Which of the following sentences should Keegan use as a reason to explain why her claim is true? A) The patterns only come out when the game is played in several rounds, not just one time. B) It may seem that the outcome of the game is random and therefore impossible to predict. C) The winning hand gesture of the previous round strongly influences players’ choice of hand gesture in the next round. D) According to a study, players who lose a round of the game will likely switch, in the next round, to the hand gesture that comes next in the game’s name.
C) The winning hand gesture of the previous round strongly influences players’ choice of hand gesture in the next round.
500
Francisco has very strong opinions about the rights of citizens. In a debate over dinner with his dad, he claimed that Internet access is a right and that the government should provide free WiFi nationwide. Evaluate the potential evidence, and find the statement that supports Francisco's claim. A) A country of plugged-in citizens will lead to a better educated and more productive country. B) As citizens of this country, we are entitled to certain rights, and cyber freedom is one of them. C) With a reliable Internet connection, people can stay in contact with friends and family, no matter where they are. D) Access to streaming videos and other online entertainment would reduce people’s expenses and increase their quality of life.
A) A country of plugged-in citizens will lead to a better educated and more productive country.
500
Justin is writing a paper that claims hurricanes can cause more damage than tornadoes. Which piece of evidence best supports Justin’s claim that hurricanes are more destructive than tornadoes? A) There are five categories of hurricane intensity. B) Hurricanes can impact a much larger area of land. C) Hurricanes can last for weeks over water, giving advance warning. D) Hurricanes first form over warm water in the tropics before reaching land.
B) Hurricanes can impact a much larger area of land.
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