skeletal system
muscular system
both systems
keeping our body healthy

T/F: Are bones living?

TRUE: they are hard, strong organs and their cells need nutrients to grow, JUST LIKE OTHER ORGANS!


Most muscles produce the ______ of our body!



In joints, pair of muscles called ____ make opposite movements.


example: arm flex

-> as the bicep contacts the tricep relaxes 


What is a fracture?

a broken bone - can be a crack and a complete break.


What are the 3 main types of bones?

short bones

flat bones

long bones


Muscles are attached to the bones by _______.

hint: very strong tissue!



What are 3 examples of reflex actions (involuntary)?

tremor, twitching (ex. shaking your foot, tapping a pencil)


blinking and other eye reflexes

heart beating 


mouth producing saliva 

moving your hand away from something hot


What is a sprain?

when one or more ligament is stretched


What are the 2 types of joints? Give an example of each!

Moveable joint: elbow, knee (the bones move)

fixed joint: skull (the bones don't move)


Muscles are elastic organs. Explain how they work with the nervous system.

They CONTRACT in response to orders from the nervous system. When they stop receiving the order, they return to their original size (RELAX). 


Muscular and skeletal systems work together to move the body. What is the role of the muscular system? And how about the skeletal?

hint: think about what they offer to each other!

muscular system receives orders from the nervous system 

skeletal moves because of movable joints


What is a muscle contracture?

an involuntary and prolonged contraction of a muscle - like a strained neck.


In moveable joints, the end of bones are coverage in ____ to stop bones from rubbing together.

______ are tissues that hold bones together.




We have around 600 skeletal muscles that are divided in 3 parts; what are they and what types of muscles are in each parts?

Head: flat and circular muscles, used for speaking, chewing and facial expressions.

Trunk: large flat muscles. They support the backbones and help it bend. Abdominal muscles protect organs and help us bend.

Limbs: many long muscles. They move our arms, legs, hands, and feet.


Describe the process of a voluntary action (conscious).

1. Sense organ detects a stimulus and sends info to the brain. 

2. Brain identifies stimulus and decides how to act.

3. Brain sends orders to the muscles (through NERVES) and muscles respond by moving the body.


How can we avoid injury will doing physical exercise?

hint: 2 things !

With a warm-up exercise before and stretching afterwards


The skeleton has more than 200 bones and they are distributed in 3 parts; what are parts and what bones do they include? 

Head: flat bones in skull and face, protects our brain

Trunk: backbone (vertebrae (short bones!) protect our spinal cord). Backbone, ribs and sternum protect our heart and lungs

Limbs: arms and legs (long bones!), and phalanges (toes/fingers are small bones)


What are the 4 types of muscles and where can we find them?

long muscles: (narrow on the ends), bicep, quadriceps, hamstrings, etc.

short muscles: hand and feet

circular muscles: (shaped like a ring), eye, mouth 

flat muscles: (like a sheet), abdomen


Describe the process of reflex actions (involuntary/unconscious).

1. Sense organ detects a stimulus and sends info along nerves to spinal cord. 

2. Spinal cord receives the information.

3. Spinal cord sends an automatic order to muscles - responds immediately 


In some parts of the world (like Oregon), there isn't much sunlight. What do they add to milk and why?

They add Vitamin D! Sunlight helps produce Vitamin D naturally in our body. Vitamin D plays an important role in helping our bones absorb calcium and grow strong. 

--> It must be added to our diet when there is not a lot of sun.

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