Earth's Interior/Plate Tectonics
Earthquakes & Volcanoes
Rocks
The Atmosphere
Water and Wind
Weather & Climate
100

What do we call the land mass the last time all the continents were together?

Pangaea

100

What is the opening of a volcano called?

Vent

100

What are all rocks made of?

Minerals

100

How does the temperature in the atmosphere change as you get further from the Earth?

Decreases, then increases, then decreases, and then continues to increase.

100

How is wind produced?

Air moves from high to low pressure.

Difference in air pressure.

100

How are weather and climate different?

Weather is day to day, climate is the average for a region.

200

What is the largest section of the Earth's interior?

200

Where do most earthquakes occur?

- plate boundaries

- fault lines

- where plates are coming together

200

What is the difference between weathering and erosion?

Weathering is breaking down of rock into smaller pieces. Erosion is the transport/removal of weathered rock.

200

What are the 4 main layers/divisions of the atmosphere?

Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere.

200

How do clouds form?

Condensation of water vapor in the atmosphere.

200

What causes there to be 4 seasons in Kentucky?

The tilt and rotation of the Earth.

300

What are the 3 types of plate boundaries?

Divergent, Convergent, Transform

300

What are 2 of the 3 types of volcanoes?

Composite, Shield, Cinder Cone

300

What are 2 types of weathering and give an example of each.

Physical and Chemical

300

What are the 3 types of clouds?

Cumulus, cirrus, stratus

300

What is transpiration?

The release of water vapor by plants into the atmosphere.

300

Which layer of the atmosphere does most of our weather occur in?

Troposphere

400

Give one piece of evidence that supports plate tectonics/continental drift?

- coastlines fit together

- same fossils on continents far apart

- alternating bands of rock at ocean trenches

400

What is a zone of subduction?

A convergent boundary where oceanic crust dives down below continental crust.

400

Explain how the 3 different types of rock are formed.

Igneous - molten rock cooling

Sedimentary - layers of weathered rock are compacted/cemented together

Metamorphic - extreme heat and pressure changes one type of rock into another

400

State two ways carbon dioxide is put into the atmosphere.

Cellular respiration, combustion of fossil fuels, decomposition.

400

What is the difference between runoff and percolation?

Runoff is the flow of water on the surface of the earth into a larger body of water.

Percolation is the slow seeping and purifying of water as it travels through the ground into the groundwater.

400

Explain how topography (the size, shape of the land of a region) effects climate.

Mountains block moisture - humid and warm on one side, dry and cold on the other.

Open plains allow for high winds.


500

What is the asthenosphere, which layer is it found in, why is it important to plate tectonics?

- a semisolid or plastic-like layer found in the upper part of the mantle

- lithosphere/tectonic plates sit on the mantle and the convection currents within the mantle cause the plates to move 

500

How does a seismologist determine the epicenter of an earthquake?

- difference in arrival times of P and S waves

- 3 seismographs in order to triangulate one location

500

Explain the principle of superposition in dating rocks.

- rocks are put down in layers

- oldest layers/rocks are at the bottom and newest are at the top

500

Explain the greenhouse effect.

- Sun heats the Earth

- Earth radiates the heat back into the atmosphere

- Greenhouse gases absorb the heat and warm the atmosphere.

500

Explain the Coriolis Effect and how does it effect the winds in the northern hemisphere.

The curving of the natural path of an object due to the Earth's rotation.

Causes winds in the northern hemisphere to move clockwise.

500

Explain the 2 types of fronts? What type of weather is likely to accompany each.

warm front - mass of warm air moves over cold air, cloudy day with steady precipitation

cold front - mass of cold air edges under warm and and pushed it up quickly, severe weather of high winds, thunderstorms, tornadoes follow

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