Animal Anatomy and Physiology
Clinical Chemistry

Which of the following cells would most likely have the largest number of mitochondria?



Smooth muscle cells 

Skeletal muscle cells

Skeletal muscle cells -->

Cells that use large amounts of energy, such as skeletal muscle cells (d), have more mitochondria than osteocytes (a), smooth muscle cells (c), and adipocytes (b).


Which chemical constituent in urine is the result of fatty acid catabolism?

A. Acetone

B. Bilirubin

C. Glucose

D. Hemoglobin


Acetone (a), as well as beta-hydroxybutyric acid, are derived from acetoacetic acid and result from the catabolism of fatty acid. Although bilirubin and glucose may be found in urine, bilirubin (b) is a bile pigment, and glucose (c) is a form of sugar and its presence in the urine depends on corresponding levels in the blood. The presence of hemoglobin (d) is an abnormal condition of blood in the urine.


Which erythrocyte finding is commonly caused by an iron deficiency? 

Hypochromasia (b) is pallor caused by a lack of normal color in the animal's erythrocytes, commonly caused by iron-deficiency anemia. In polychromasia (a), microscopic examination of erythrocytic cytoplasm shows varying degrees of bluish staining. This is indicative of varying aged younger cells and is due to the presence of ribosomes in the cell. Macrocytosis (c) is caused by increased mean corpuscular volume, and basophilic stippling (d) is a regenerative response often found in lead poisoning, not iron-deficient anemia.


What is an intermediate host for Dipylidium caninum?



What anticoagulant of choice for collecting samples for electrolyte determination?

Lithium Heparin


Which of the following contains valves? 

A. Arteries and veins

B. Veins and lymphatic vessels

C. Veins and capillaries

D. Arteries and lymphatic vessels

Veins and lymphatic vessels -->

Both veins and lymphatic vessels (b) have valves. Venous blood pressure is low; therefore they need valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Lymph vessels resemble veins but have thinner walls and more valves. Arteries (a and d) do not have valves; they are thicker and stronger than veins, carrying blood away from the heart under great pressure. Capillaries (c) do not need valves because arterioles control the flow of blood through them.


Which condition (medical term) is signified by the presence of intact RBCs in the urine?



Which term describes cells that have sharp, evenly spaced projections around the margin and often appear as the result of slow drying of the blood film?

Crenation (d) refers to sharp, evenly spaced projections around an erythrocyte's margin, often the result of slow drying of the blood film. Target cells (a) have a "target-like" or "bull's-eye" appearance with a red center and alternating red and white rings and are caused by increased surface area of the cell membrane or decreased cytoplasmic volume. Acanthocytes, also known as spur cells (b), are characterized by varying numbers of unevenly sized and spaced "fingerlike" blunt projections on the cell, which are caused by hepatic-associated, metabolic, or membrane-associated disorders. Schistocytes (c) are varying sized and shaped fragments of erythrocytes caused by intravascular shearing of the cell.


What technique is best for detecting Giardia spp.?

Centrifugal flotation technique


What is a by-product of muscle metabolism that is produced at a constant rate and filtered out almost entirely by the glomeruli?



Which pairing identifies (a) the structure containing receptors for hearing and (b) where that structure is found? 

A. Stapes/cochlea

B. Cochlea/middle ear

C. Organ of Corti/inner ear

D. Organ of Corti/middle ear

Organ of Corti/inner ear -->

The receptors for hearing are part of the organ of Corti (c), not the stapes (a). The organ of Corti is found in the cochlea, which is found in the inner ear (c), not the middle ear (b and d).


A patient's urine specimen is yellow-brown to greenish and foams when shaken. What is most likely present in this patient's urine?

Bile Pigments -->

Bile pigments (c) are likely contained in yellow-brown to greenish urine that foams when shaken. Low specific gravity (SG) (a) produces light yellow urine, and high SG (b) produces darker yellow urine. Hemoglobin or red blood cells (d) usually produce either red or reddish-brown urine.


Under a microscope, a technician sees a collection of white blood cells with variable nuclear shapes, diffuse chromatin, and blue-gray cytoplasm, some with vacuoles. Which type of cells is this technician seeing?



What is the best way to preserve parasitic samples for shipping to a laboratory?

Send fresh or mixed at a ratio of 1:3 with 10% formalin


Which of the following pairs of electrolytes have an inverse relationship in the body, such that one is negatively charged and the other is positively charged?

A. Potassium and magnesium

B. Calcium and phosphorus

C. Chloride and phosphorus

D. Sodium and calcium


Calcium and phosphorus


In glomerular filtration, what happens to metabolic waste in the plasma? 

A. Passes into the distal convoluted tubule

B. Remains in the plasma

C. Passes into peritubular capillaries

D. Passes into Bowman's capsule

Passes into Bowman's capsule -->

In glomerular filtration, metabolic waste from the plasma passes into Bowman's capsule (d), not the distal convoluted tubules (a) or the peritubular capillaries (c). And of course, if waste remained in the plasma (b), the purifying act of glomerular filtration would not be taking place at all, because that is its primary purpose.


What best describes pollakiuria? (layterm)

Frequent urination


Which term describes variation in the size of erythrocytes?

Anisocytosis -->

Anisocytosis (b) refers to a variation in the size of erythrocytes. Microcytosis (a) is decreased MCV. Poikilocytosis (c) is a general term denoting nondescript variations in shapes of erythrocytes that are mean corpuscular volume scattered throughout the blood film. Normocytosis (d) means size appropriate for the species.  


Which parasite is the same as a sheep hookworm?

A. Chabertia ovina

B. Haemonchus

C. Ostertagia

D. Cooperia


Chabertia ovina


A veterinary technician must obtain a blood sample to measure oxygenation levels. Which step is most important? 

A. Obtain blood from an artery

B. Remove serum or plasma from cells immediately

C. Keep blood at specified body temperature until processing

D. Use nonhemolyzed serum or plasma only to avoid false elevations

Obtain blood from an artery


What is a prokaryote?

A cell that lacks a true membrane-bound nucleus and organelles -->

A cell that lacks a true membrane-bound nucleus and organelles (b) is a prokaryote. The other three descriptions (a, c, and d) describe attributes of eukaryotes, not prokaryotes. For example, a eukaryote is a cell that has a membrane-bound nucleus and many different membranes (a and c). A eukaryotic cell consists of a double phospholipid layer with interspersed proteins (fluid-mosaic model) and contains carbohydrate chains and cholesterol (d).


A cat's urine is cloudy, yet tests indicate it is normal. Which is the most likely cause of the cloudy appearance?



Which strategy must be avoided in conducting leukocyte evaluation and differentiation?

Include feathered edge counting


For which diagnosis is the Baermann technique most useful? 

A. Cryptosporidium oocysts

B. Lungworm larvae

C. Microfilariae

D. Mites

Lungworm larvae


Which of the following is rare, except in cases of dehydration?


A. Hypernatremia

B. Hyponatremia

C. Hyperkalemia

D. Hypokalemia


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