Historical Figures


Strongly pacifist religion


Townshend Acts

Chancellor of Exchequer Charles Townshend passed a tax on a variety of goods such as glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea


George Washington

Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army


Salem Witch Trials

A group of girls were found having their fortunes read by an enslaved woman named Tituba. The town went through a series of accusations mostly leveled at older women in the town (78% of accused witches were women). In the end, ~19 people were executed and 5 died in prison due to “witchcraft.”


The African Slave Trade

The slave trade in Africa was distinct from the eventual chattel slavery adopted by Europeans:

  • Most enslaved people were captured in war raids and forced to work in the empire by which they were taken. 

  • Many were often freed after a term of 7-15 years. 

  • Often were permitted full citizenship in the community which they were forced into - children would not be treated as slaves.


States of the three colony areas


Navigation Acts

These laws forbid colonists from trading with any country or colony other than England.


Thomas Paine

Author of Common Sense


Religious Tolerance

Despite events such as the witch trials, the American colonies were far more religiously tolerant than Britain at the time.


Early forms of forced labor in America

Most enslaved people were sold either in the Caribbean or South America to work on sugar plantations. 



A group of Puritan religious separatists known as “Pilgrims” obtained a charter in 1619 to settle in the Northeastern region of the British North American colonies


Proclamation of 1763

This made it illegal for colonists to settle beyond the Appalachian mountains.


Bartolome de las Casas

Author of the report that changed the treatment of indigenous slaves working in the encomienda system


First Great Awakening

Protestant religions began to come together to recognize a common identity. All looked to evangelize the colonies.


Encomienda System

Native American communities were expected to meet high quotas of materials to provide to the Spanish – Usually was gold or silver. 


Columbian Exchange

  • Starting with the arrival of Columbus in 1492, the Old World and New World began exchanging goods, ideas, and diseases on a path known as the Columbian Exchange.

  • Goods such as corn, tomatoes, and potatoes were all sent from the New World to the Old World.

  • Horses, cattle, and advanced weapons were brought to the Americas for the first time.


Coercive (Intolarable) Acts

  • Boston Harbor would be closed until the tea was paid for.

  • The Massachusetts Constitution was ended – Citizens of Massachusetts could no longer vote for local offices.

  • All trials would be carried out by British officials.

  • Required colonists to abide by the Quartering Act.

  • Granted freedom of worship to Catholics living in British territories (Quebec Act) – hated by Protestants.


George Whitefield

First Great Awakening figure



The Puritan faith dominated New England. Puritans believe in a strict God and require all members of a community to share those beliefs.


Dunmore Proclamation

In 1775, the British Governor of Virginia, Lord Dunmore, issued a proclamation stating that any enslaved person who would flee their plantation and aid the British Army would be granted their freedom


Sons of Liberty

In August of 1765, Samuel Adams and John Hancock helped form the Sons of Liberty – an organization that organized protests, burned effigies, and even delivered threats to British tax collectors. 


French and Indian War

The British controlled the 13 colonies on the east coast. As the British continued to expand westward, they began to encroach on French territories.


Roger Williams

Founder the state of Rhode Island and advocating separation of church and state in Colonial America


Native American Women

Many Native American societies treated women as intellectual equals and morally superior. Therefore, many Native American societies were led by a matriarch who attended treaty conferences with the English. Chiefdom was often passed through matrilineal lines.


Anthony Johnson

Secured his freedom, purchased land, and even owned slaves of his own in the Virginia colony

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