Group I
Group II
Group III

When you begin with some specific premises that are generally true, and you need to judge whether hose premises allow you o draw a particular conclusion, based on the principles of logic.

What is deductive reasoning?


This is a deductive reasoning task where there are two statements that mus be assumed to be true, plus a conclusion.

What is a syllogism?


This theory distinguishes between two types of cognitive processing.

What is dual-process theory?


This form of reasoning has an "if... then..." type of structure.

What is conditional reasoning?


True or False: The conclusions of both deductive reasoning and decision making both are based upon the principles of logic.

False; this is the case for deductive reasoning, but in decision making it is more ambiguous, uncertain, and no principles comparable to the principles of logic


True or False: the cognitive burden of deductive reasoning is heavier when at least some of the propositions contain negative terms.



If the weather is nice, then Ned will go on a picnic.

The weather is not nice.

Therefore, Ned will not go on a picnic.

What reasoning task is this?

Conditional reasoning task


In a syllogism you must judge whether the conclusion is ___________.

(a) valid, (b) invalid, or (c) indeterminate


This task is known as causing the largest number of errors.

What is "affirming the consequent"?


The four kinds of reasoning used in analyzing propositions or statements.

What are (a) affirming the antecedent, (b) affirming the consequent, (c) denying the antecedent, and (d) denying the consequent?


A top-down processing error where people make judgments based on prior beliefs and knowledge instead of on the rules of logic.

What is belief-bias effect?


The system used to categorize the four forms of reasoning to analyze propositions or statements.

What is propositional calculus?


Conditional reasoning relies upon the _________ part of working memory.



True or False: Heuristics are especially useful for deductive reasoning because they help reasoning 



Nneoma noticed that she demonstrated a belief-bias effect when trying the judge the conclusion of a conditional reasoning task. She then analyzed the conditional reasoning task more carefully and judged the conclusion correctly. What type of processing did Nneoma engage in to correctly judge the conclusion?

Type 2 processing