Chronic Distress Model
Mindfulness of Thoughts
Mindfulness of Emotions
Managing Distress

Category of behaviors we engage in that is *reactive* to our core premise being activated, which functions to self-punish, numb, or get away from our feelings. These behaviors are ultimately self-defeating.

Escape behavior


When you take what you are experiencing through your senses and put it into words you are using what skill?



What does it mean to "unhook" or "defuse"?

Being mindful of thoughts, rather than all caught up in thinking, or taking our thoughts as THE TRUTH. When we are unhooked/defused, we are able to notice whatever thoughts we're having, while still choosing how we want to behave.


Describe what emotion you are feeling currently and how you know. 

To be judged by group leader - look for descriptions both of bodily states/sensations and thoughts.


When do we use Distress Management skills? (without using either of these words in the sentence)


When in crisis/experiencing high emotions. 

When we are having urges and don't want to make the situation worse. 


Category of behavior to describe when we are *proactively* attempting to evade or disprove our core premise. When we are acting like the "model person."

Avoidant behavior


Give an example of a judgmental thought and then its descriptive counterpart. 

To be judged by group leader. 


What is the first step necessary to unhook/defuse from our thoughts

Noticing/observing that we are having thoughts!


Do Emotions cause behaviors?

No! They result in action urges or tendencies - however these are *not* guaranteed.  We can experience an urge and behave the very opposite.


What does one of the "P"s in T.I.P.P stand for, and what is a situation that you would use that skill in?

Paced Breathing or Progressive Muscle Relaxation


Name the underlying fear/belief underlying all core premise.

"I am inferior/inadequate/unacceptable."


What we call the 2 main categories of core mindfulness skills. One of these categories includes: Observe, Describe, Participate. The other category includes: One-mindfully, Non-judgmentally, and Effectively.

"What" and "How" skills


Name one example of an "unhooking" skill that helps us to change our relationship with a thought

To be judged for accuracy by group leader. 


How does one "ride the wave" of emotions. 

Anchor on the body and physical sensations of emotion, engaging with mindfulness of thoughts (i.e. noticing thoughts, suspending thinking) throughout.


Name one component of the acronym "IMPROVE" and provide an example of it.

Imagination - safe space imagery/meditation, using your imagination constructively

Meaning - what you can learn/what is the function of the distress

Prayer - connect with a higher power

Relaxation - stretching, self massage

One thing in the moment - focus on one part of an ongoing problem at a time

Validate yourself - label your feelings

Expansion skills - breathe into the bodily sensations of your emotions, an emotion only lasts 90 seconds


What is one behavior you engaged in this past week where you were acting as a "model person"? How could you tell that this was different than a values-driven behavior?

Facilitator/group judges


One goal of mindfulness (i.e why do it)

It reduces suffering, increases our ability to selectively focus attention, helps us behave effectively to the situation, etc. *NOT* to relax, to clear our minds, or to achieve some kind of state, etc.


How can we tell we are getting "hooked by" or "fused with" a thought?

Judged by group leader. Answers could include: our emotions will be escalated, there will be similarities in the story our mind is telling us now and with past experiences (it feels like our past is happening again! or going to happen again!), other people may have vastly different perspectives or even invalidate our thoughts.


Remember there are 5 physiological changes related to when we experience emotions (and Christina can only remember 4 in any given moment). Name one of these.

Heart Rate, 

Blood Pressure, 

Muscle Tension, 

Body Temperature, 

Respiration (Breathing)


What we call it when we intentionally choose to not do what is required in a situation, to sit on our hands, or throw a tantrum.



Name at least one of the conditions under which we transition from one side of the cycle to another?

We transition from avoidance to escape when we experience performative exhaustion (it's tiring to be perfect!) or when we are overwhelmed by "evidence" that our core premise is true.

We transition back to avoidance from escape when we either feel guilty for engaging in self-defeating behaviors, or when someone somehow reassures us that our core premise isn't tru.


One way in which you have applied something you practiced in mindfulness to your daily life.

Answers will vary: could include - noticing and not acting on urges helps me be less impulsive/not act on my target behaviors, disengaging from unhelpful worrying/ruminating thinking, helping me be less judgmental of myself, etc.


Give an example in the past month where you defused/unhooked from a thought. 

Judged by group & leader


What does "SUDS" stand for, and how do you use it?

Subjective Unit of Distress Scale is used to help you gain insight into what varying levels of emotional distress look like for you so that you know when and what type of skills to use. 


The process of moving towards radical acceptance over and over is called?

Turning the mind

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