type of reading skill
type of writing skill
apply different reading skill
apply different writing skill


extremely difficult to achieve


What do you ask yourself when looking for the central idea of a reading?

What is the key point the author is trying to make in these paragraphs?


What is the goal when writing an objective summary?

to understand the text’s most important points: its central ideas.


How do you find hidden meanings?

By using textual evidence


How should you write an informational text?

  • professional
  • formal
  • neutral
  • objective


to make more severe; to intensify


What are the three sides of this rhetorical triangle?

  • The message is the content itself, the text—what is being communicated.
  • The writer/speaker (author) is the person delivering the message.
  • The audience is the person or people the author is trying to persuade—those who will receive the message.

What are structural elements and why do we use them?

Structural elements such as sentences, paragraphs, chapters, and sections, can help a reader to comprehend a text’s main idea or claim. Sentences are the basic building blocks of the text; they combine to make paragraphs, which build chapters and sections. Together these structural elements make a cohesive whole.


What categories do stylistic elements fall under?

  • syntax
  • diction
  • tone
  • voice

What are the purposes of a thesis statement?

  • It presents the central idea and main points of the entire essay.
  • It sets up the overall structure and organization of the essay.
  • It gives the readers a preview of where the essay is going and how it will get there. 


expressed without unnecessary words; brief and compact


How do you determine a theme?

The theme of a text can be determined from the text’s topic. Readers can first determine which topics are discussed in depth within a text.


What is an argumentative text?

Argumentative is a type of writing that emphasizes logic, specifically claims, reasons, evidence and, counterclaims. As a writer of argument, you focus on two tasks:

  • presenting your claim and its evidence to your audience
  • presenting the opposition to the claim and why that opposition is not valid

Ways to show theme in a text


  • can state the theme directly.
  • can be demonstrated in an example of a series of examples.
  • The theme can be shown but never explicitly stated; the reader has to infer it.

What should you do when writing an argumentative essay?

  • use an objective and reasonable tone
  • use a formal writing style


to advance or intrude beyond set limits


What styles do you use to persuade audiences?



What does each of the rhetorical features convey?

ethos – used to persuade an audience by establishing credibility and building trust

pathos – used to persuade an audience by appealing to their emotions or values

logos – used to persuade an audience by appealing to their logic and reasoning


An author is trying to make you feel bad for someone, which feature is this?



If you wanted to convince an audience that your study was correct, which rhetorical feature would you use and why?

Logos because its used to persuade an audience by appealing to their logic and reasoning 



protection against loss or damage


In an argumentative essay, what is a claim?

The claim is the primary statement that is to be proved through the presentation of an argument.


How do you decide whether evidence is sufficient, credible, and accurate? 

  • Are there sufficient, or enough, examples to demonstrate the reason?
    If an author claims there is a trend, he or she should present several examples.
  • Is the presented source credible and trustworthy?
    Scientists, researchers, historians, and major news outlets are usually highly credible sources.
  • Is the evidence accurate and being used as it was intended?
    If a quotation is cut off partway through, or taken out of context, it may not accurately support the author’s reasons.

When reviewing an essay how should it be formatted?

  • contains a clear, focused, and complete thesis statement
  • uses evidence from at least four different non-Wikipedia sources
  • uses an objective tone and formal style
  • formatted in accordance with MLA style

Items to avoid in an argument 

  • first-person pronouns like I and you (unless you are quoting evidence that includes one of these pronouns)
  • any sort of slang (unless it is found in evidence that is quoted)
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