Introduction to Emotions
Introduction to Emotions Part II
Positive Emotions/Drive States
Stress, Coping, and Health

What are the 6 fundamental emotions?

Anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise


Which part of the autonomic nervous system is involved in fight-or-flight?

Sympathetic nervous system

Who is the father of positive psychology?

Martin Seligman

What are the 3 stages of Hans Seyle's General Adaptation Syndrome?

Alarm, Resistance, Exhaustion


What is eustress?

Stress that is not necessarily debilitative and could potentially be facilitative to a person’s well-being, capacity, or performance


Which brain areas are involved in the experience of emotions?

Limbic system (amygdala, hypothalamus, and thalamus)


Describe 3 physiological processes that might occur when your parasympathetic nervous system is activated.

Pupils contract, salivation increases, skin dries, respiration decreases, heart rate slows, digestion is activated, adrenal glands secrete less cortisol, immune system functioning is enhanced.


Does more money equal more happiness?

Not necessarily. Even as people make more money, their reported level of happiness remains relatively consistent.


What is the typical stress response of women referred to as?



Define the inverted U-hypothesis of stress.

Stress can induce growth up until a certain point when stress becomes too much and becomes detrimental


Describe the difference between the fast pathway and slower pathway as it pertains to emotional processing.

Fast pathway - Stimulus -> thalamus -> amygdala -> reaction; used for processing of basic emotions

Slower pathway - Stimulus -> thalamus -> frontal cortex -> amygdala -> reaction; used for processing of secondary emotions


What is the facial feedback hypothesis?

Proposes that the movement of our facial muscles can trigger corresponding emotions


Define homeostasis and how it is obtained in the body.

Individual’s need to maintain stability across all different systems of the body

Maintained via 2 factors:

- Systems must be regulated to a set point

- Processes must exist to return the body to this set point if it deviates


Which neurotransmitter is implicated in emotion regulation?



What is proactive coping?

Engaging in positive strategies prior to experiencing a stressor to minimize the potential impact of stress when it does occur (e.g. maintaining a healthy lifestyle, meditating, developing strong social support)

Which theory of emotion suggests that we accompany emotions and physiological arousal simultaneouly?

Cannon-Bard Theory


If a car is speeding at you, you might feel your heart race or your hands start to shake. You attribute these reactions as fear. This scenario is consistent with the ____________ theory of emotion.



Name an internal cue and external cue for hunger.

Internal - Low glucose levels, stomach growling, decreased concentration

External - Smell of food, time of day


Describe how the HPA axis is involved in stress reactions. 

During times of stress, hypothalamus is activated and communicates with the pituitary glands. Pituitary glands secrete ACTH, which is the precursor to cortisol. Adrenal glands, upon receiving ACTH, release both cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine to trigger the body to engage in fight-or-flight processes.

If a person believes that they got passed over for a promotion due to their shortcomings, this is likely related to their ________ locus of control. Alternatively, if the person believes that they got passed over for the promotion due to the boss unfairly hating them, this is likely related to their __________ locus of control.

Internal; external


Describe the Schacter-Singer Two-Factor Theory of emotional processing. 

The experience of emotion is determined by the intensity of the arousal we are experiencing, but that the cognitive appraisal of the situation determines what the emotion will be.


If a person is standing on a very high bridge and feels physiological arousal, but attributes that to being sexually attracted to another person on the bridge, we would call this phenomenon ______________. 

Misattribution of Arousal or Excitation Transfer


What are the brain areas involved in sexual arousal for men and women?

Men - Preoptic area

Women - Ventromedial Hypothalamus


Name at least 3 long-term effects of stress.

Anxiety, depression, PTSD, digestive problems, heart problems, sleep problems, cognitive difficulties


Describe Lazarus' Transactional Theory of Stress and Coping. 

Stressor occurs first. 

Primary appraisal involves determining whether the stressor poses a threat.

Secondary appraisal involves the individual’s evaluation of the resources or coping strategies at his or her disposal for addressing any perceived threats

Coping response is whatever the individual does to deal with the perceived stressor (can be adaptive or maladaptive)

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