Rising Expectations and Market Failures
Cold War
Cultural Trends 1952-1968


What factors fueled the red scare in the 1920s? How did the Red Scare impact U.S. society?

- The Russian Revolution, xenophobia, labor unrest

-Impacts: accusation and deportation of many immigrants, restrictions on immigration policy (National Origins Act of 1924)

Examples: Palmer Raids, Sacco and Vanzetti


Explain what Bank Holiday was and what were its goals?

Temporary shutting down of banks to reform and reorganize them.


What event pulled the U.S. officially into WWII?

Attack on Pearl Harbor; U.S. declared war on Japan.


Define the U.S. Policy of Containment. What were examples of the U.S. practicing this policy (not events but policy)?

Containing the spread of communism so that it could die from within.

Ex: Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan


Define McCarthyism? How did McCarthyism impact U.S. society?

"Witch hunt" for supposed Communist sympathizers. Fueled by Communist takeover in China, and the growing influence of the U.S.S.R.

Many in a state of intense fear. Many blacklisted and lost jobs. Some executed. 


What was the Harlem Renaissance and what is meant by the "New Negro"?

Harlem Renaissance- Era of cultural explosion that celebrated black culture and creativity.

"New Negro"- Represented a new identity that embodied freedom from the South and applauded the transition from "social disillusionment to race pride."


What was Hoover's stance on dealing with the financial crisis?

The Federal government should not be the ones to pull U.S. out of crisis. 

Hoover eventually allowed for some government spending, but it made little to no impact.


What was the stance of the United States at the wake of WWII?

What are some examples that show this position?

The U.S. remained isolationists.

Examples: Series of Neutrality Acts. (Eventually Cash and Carry, Lend Lease, shoot on sight)


What was the first "hot" war of the Cold War? Explain the phases of the war and the outcome of the war.

The Korean War

Back and forth fighting between North Korea (backed by the Soviet Union and PRC) and South Korea (U.S. and UN)

Outcome: Stalemate led to an armistice at the 38th parallel; High casualties esp. Korean civilians


What led the development of the suburbs?

What were the pros and cons to the suburbs?

Many veterans returned back to civilian life with struggles to find housing; high demand led to construction boom, funded by the gov't.


Which amendment prohibited the sale and manufacturing of alcoholic beverages?

How did Americans get around prohibition?

18th Amendment; Speakeasies and police/authorities often looked the other way.


What factors led the fall of the stock market?

Uneven distribution of income, over speculation of the stock market, excessive use of credit, overproduction.


What event occurred before the Munich Agreement? What did the agreement result in?

Annexation of Austria; Resulted in the annexation of the Sudetenland and eventually the German invasion of Poland.


What was the purpose of the U.S. quarantine of Cuba?

What was the outcome of the Cuban Missile Crisis?

To prevent more Soviet missiles from entering Cuba and to pressure Cuba into dismantling its missiles.

Outcome: Soviets took missiles out of Cuba; U.S. removed missiles from Turkey and Italy and promised to never invade Cuba.


Compare and contrast the strategies of MLK and Malcolm X during the Civil Rights Movement.

MLK- Civil Disobedience, peaceful protesting  

Malcolm X- Appropriate to use violence in the face of violence. Spread ideas based on black power and black nationalism.


Explain the Scopes Trial and identify its larger significance on U.S. society.

Scopes Trial: Scopes taught evolution theory in TN (Butler Act forbade evo. theory); Trial was a nationwide media event; Scopes was convicted and fined.

Larger significance: represented the struggle of fundamentalism vs. liberalism that took place in the 1920s.


How did FDR bring relief for the unemployed?

FDR created programs to provide job opportunities for the jobless (ex: Public Works Administration (PWA) and Civilian Conservation Corps. (CCC))


Name 3 examples of how the U.S. mobilized.

- War Production Board: managed war industries

-Office of War Mobilization: set production goals, controlled raw materials

- Office of Price Admin.: froze wages, rationed commodities 

- War industry: Output doubled that of Axis powers


What impacts did the Vietnam War have of American society?

Growing distrust between the government and the American people. Many troops sent to Vietnam only to be killed in battle. Loss of credibility of the gov't.


Which president introduced the plans for a Great Society? What types of reforms did the Great Society focus on?

Lindon B. Johnson 

Race Relations, poverty, education, healthcare, etc.


In what ways can the 1920s be seen as radical vs. reactionary?


How did FDR bring about financial recovery during the Great Depression?


Explain the difference between the Potsdam and Yalta conference.

Yalta: Agreed upon free elections in E. Europe; Creation of the UN.

Potsdam:Demanded unconditional surrender of Japan; Germany divided into zones, Nuremberg Trials.


What was Detente?

What are some examples of Detente?

Easing of Cold War tensions between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. initiated by Nixon and Kissenger.

SALT I and II, Nixon visits China.


Name and describe the 2 Civil Rights legislation passed during the mid 1960s.

Civil Rights Act of 1964- Made segregation illegal in all public facilities; Ended discrimination in employment based on gender, race, sex, national origin.

Voting Rights Act, 1965- Ended literacy tests; Provided federal registrars in areas were kept from voting.