History pt 2
  • First known descriptions tetanus, typhus, tuberculosis, etc.

  • Suggested human disease related to external and personal environments

    • Ex. seasons, wind, sun, water

  • Qualitative data


  • Pioneered fundamental principle between effect of treatment or substance, cna only be assessed byu a comparison

    • First case control studies

  • USed numerical methods to produce statistical evidence

  • Found the practice of bloodletting was ineffective/dangerous when contrasted with no treatment

    • Bloodletting: Letting someone bleed out ot cure their illness

  • Pierre-Charles Alexandre Louis

  • Analyzed weekly reports of births and deaths:

    • First to quantify patterns of disease

    • Noted increase in # men that were born or died 

    • Notd high infant mortality rate


  • Epidemiology can identify infections and non infectious agents

  • Pellagra (neurological disease) → Vitamin deficiency

  • Jewish?

Joseph Goldberger


    • Formulate and test hypothesis concerning origin of cholera epidemic

    • Acute bacteria infection in small intestine

    • Symptoms: Severe diarrhea, motitin, muscular cramps, and dehydration → electrolyte depletion

    • Spread by water and food contaminated by feces of persons previously infected

    • Tracked the cholera outbreak

    • Southwark: 114 deaths/100,000

    • Lambeth (neighbouring town): 0

    • Southwark and Lambeth: 60 deaths/100,000

    • Postulated cholera was transmitted by contaminated water

    • Two water companies: Lambeth and Southwark

    • Both drew water from Thames

    • Heavily polluted

    • Observations supported hypothesis

    • Drinking water from Southwark increased risk of cholera

    • Produced enough knowledge to enable disease prevention measures (even when the cause of the disease was not yet known → knew it was water but not specifics)


  • Combined observations and measurements of phenomena with experimental design to test theories/laws

  • Quantitative data

Galileo Galilei


Medicine is a social science and politics is nothing else but medicine on a large scale

Father of modern pathology 

Rudolf Virchow

  • Worked for the office of registrar for England and wale

  • System of routine compilation of numbers and causes of deaths

  • Compared mortality rates with several different characteristics

    • Frequency and disruption

    • Normal curve

William Farr

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