Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Biology in Conditioning/Learning by Observation
What are the basic components of classical conditioning?

What is US, UR, CS, CR, NS?


Define operant conditioning.

What is, a type of learning in which a behavior becomes more likely to recur if followed by a reinforcer or less likely to recur if followed by a punisher?


Explain the two different types of motivation.

Intrinsic motivation-a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake

Extrinsic motivation-a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment


Explain Ivan Pavlov's experiment.

What is Pavlov presented a neutral stimulus (a tone) just before an unconditioned stimulus (food in mouth). The neutral stimulus then became a conditioned stimulus, producing a conditioned response.


Define classical conditioning.

What is a type of learning in which we link two or more stimuli; as a result, the first stimulus comes to elicit behavior in anticipation of the second stimulus?


Explain the law of effect.

What is behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely?


What is self-control in learning?

What is, the ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards?


Explain the Skinner Box/Operant Chamber experiment.

What is inside the box, the rat presses a bar for a food reward. Outside, measuring devices record the animal's accumulated response. Concept of reinforcement.

Explain higher-order or second-order conditioning.

What is a new NS can become a new CS without the presence of a US? All that's required is for it to become associated with a previously conditioned stimulus.

What are the two different types of reinforcements and explain them?

Positive reinforcement- any stimulus that when presented after a response strengthens the response.

Negative reinforcement- any stimulus when removed after a response strengthens the response.

Note: Negative reinforcement is not punishment.....


What two ways do people learn to cope with personal problems?

What is problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping?


Explain the results of the rats in a maze experiment regarding latent learning.

What is, rats in one group repeatedly explored a maze, always with a food reward at the end. Rats in another group explored the maze with no food reward. Once given the food reward at the end, rats in the second group ran the maze as fast and faster than the first. 

Latent learning- Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.


Define learning.

What is the process of acquiring through experience new and relatively enduring information or behaviors?


What are the four different reinforcement schedules?

What is fixed-ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, variable interval schedule?


What kinds of things do we learn from modeling?

Language, etc.


Explain the famous Bobo Doll Experiment.

What is it is what it is?


What are three examples of how Pavlov's principles can influence human health and well-being?

What is drug cravings, food cravings, and immune responses?

How does punishment differ from negative reinforcement?

Reinforcement increases a behavior, punishment does the opposite.

Punishment decreases the frequency of a preceding behavior.


What is modeling?

What is the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior?