Tools of neurologist
Action Potential
Cerebral Cortex
Parts of the Brain
Misc.
100

What is an Electroencephalogram (EEG)?

measures electrical activity at the level of the cerebral cortex

100

What is the all or none law? 

Action potential either occurs at a maximum identical intensity (all) or not at all (none)

The threshold for action to occur is at -55mV

100

Name all the lobes of the cerebral cortex?

Occipital, Temporal, Parietal, and Frontal

100

What is the brain structure that controls muscle movement, coordination, and balance

Cerebellum

100

Sympathetic is to ____ as Parasympathetic is to ____

Fight/Flight, Rest/Digest

200

How does a Positron emission tomography (PET Scan) work? 

A patient is injected with radioactively tagged glucose, and the brain metabolizes it

200

What is reuptake?

neuron reabsorbs excess neurotransmitter molecules

200

What does the occipital lobe process?

Vision

200

The amygdala is known for controlling....

Emotion, fear, aggression

200

The central nervous system is composed of...

brain and spinal cord

300

What two tools are in a fMRI?

PET scan and MRIs

300

How does actional potential move down a neuron?

dendrites → cell body → axon → terminal endings 

300

What is the function of the frontal cortex?

- Higher-level cognitive functions

- Personality

- Movement

- Inhibition

- Executive control

300
What is the function of the hippocampus?

memory

300

Electrical communication is to action potential as chemical communication is to ___

Electrical communication - Action potential

Chemical communication - Neurotransmitters

400

Compare how the following tests measure data: MRI vs. CAT scan

MRIs use magnetic fields and radio waves

CAT scans use x-rays 

400

Order the stages of action potential

resting potential --> depolarization --> repolarization --> hyperpolarization

400

Name two significant areas in the temporal lobe. What do they do?

Broca's area - language production

Wernicke's area - language comprehension

400

Compare the Hypothalamus to the Thalamus

Hypothalamus - maintains homeostasis (sweating, thirst, hunger)

Thalamus - relay center for sensory information except olfaction

400

Compare the functions of the left and right hemisphere

Left: language, speech, more analytical, verbal memory

Right: spatial, more holistic, visual memory

500

What does each tool measure: structure and/or function?

- EEG, PET scan, MRI, fMRI, CAT scan

- EEG measures function

- PET scan measures function

- MRI measures measures structure

- fMRI measures structure AND function

- CAT measures structure 

500

Briefly explain how neurons communicate

axon potential reaches the axon terminal which stimulates release of neurotransmitters. These molecules cross the synaptic gap and bind to receptor sites. This allows electrically charged atom to enter new axon

500

What is the role of the corpus callosum? Why is this significant for splint brain patients?

The corpus callosum serves as a bridge between the left and right hemispheres. For split-brain patients, they do not have a corpus callosum, thus their hemispheres are disconnected.

500

The brain stem is composed of what and what are their functions?

Pons - messages move vertically along it

Medulla - heartbeat, breathing and blood pressure 

500

What is normally concentrated inside the cell, and what is normally concentrated outside the cell?

Sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) normally concentrated outside of cell

Potassium (K+) and some proteins normally concentrated inside of cell

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