Emotions and thinking
Individual differences in emotionality
Childhood psychopathologies
Emotional disorders in adulthood
BTBG and Articles

What does a 'mode of organization' refer to (in terms of primary appraisal)?

occurs automatically, carries no specific information about the environment. It sets the brain into a particular mode- gives a priority and urge to act, prompted by an emotion. 


Name the 5 components of the Big 5 Model of Personality

Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism


Internalizing vs externalizing behaviors

e.g. conduct disorder (externalizing); depression (internalizing)

externalizing: hostility, disruptive behavior 

internalizing: depressed mood and anxiety 


Generalized anxiety disorder

At least six months of disabling and persistent anxiety or worry. 


What did the twenty statements task in Frederickson et al.'s study refer to? 

After viewing an emotionally evocative film, participants were asked to fill in 20 blank lines that began with 'I would like to __' . The number of statements participants completed was tallied, with
a possible range from 0 to 20. Higher scores indicate a larger thought-action repertoire.


Explain system 1 and system 2 

System 1: automatic, involves the modes of organization

System 2: informational, enables mental models of events, their possible causes, and their implications for future action. 


What are the components of the Big 5 most associated with successful life trajectories?

high openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness and low neuroticism. 

High agreeableness and conscientiousness has been described as associated with stability. 


Categorical vs. dimensional approach to psychopathology

Categorical: Using the DSM-5 or ICD to diagnose. Assume that disorders are discrete, separate, and well differentiated from normal functioning. Also that there is a specific cause and corresponding treatment, and that the course of the illness is similar across children who suffer from them. 

Dimensional: Occur along a spectrum- information is normally gathered via an assessment where checklist and questionnaires are completed by the patient and caregiver. Identifies clusters of behavior that overlap with diagnoses. 


What does rumination mean?

Brooding on symptoms of distress in a repetitive manner rather than in a problem-solving way. Predictive of depression.


The 'commitment problem'

We must put aside self-interested courses of action in the service of our long-term commitment to one another, and we must reliably identify who is committed to us.


What does it mean to say emotions are heuristics?

Emotions are guesses that often work better than chance- shortcuts to making judgments or taking action. 


How do negative life events change personality? 

dependent life events (influenced by the individual) predict decrease in C and A, and both independent and dependent predicted an increase in neuroticism. 


What is the hostile attribution bias?

One particular emotion or family of emotions dominate possible experiences and guide appraisals and behaviors. 

Children become more likely to interpret neutral incidents as intentionally hostile, which predicts aggressive behavior. 


Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Characterized by obsessions (intrusive, anxious thoughts that occur repeatedly) and compulsions (repeated actions or rituals like washing one's hands many times per day to reduce anxiety). 


What does the 'Broaden and Build' theory refer to?

  • Positive emotions broaden individuals’ momentary thought-action repertoires, priming them to pursue a wider range of thoughts and actions (e.g explore, savour)

  •  Negative emotions narrow individuals’ momentary thought-action repertoires by calling forth specific action tendencies (e.g attack, flee) 


What is the Ultimatum Game?

Proposer offers to share a sum of money in a certain proportion. Responder decides to accept or reject the offer. When proposers offer to share the money equally, is seen as fair and is accepted. When shares of money are offered unfairly, responders reject them. This is labelled irrational and reason behind it is thought to be emotional. 

What is the social relations model?

Tries to answer whether angry and oppositional behavior elicits negative reactions from everyone in the family. Researchers must observe an individual interaction with other people, to see how much the emotions they direct to others and the emotions they elicit in others show characteristic patterns. In a large study, it was found that certain individuals did evoke negativity from everyone. Some people are thus emotionally challenging for those with whom they interact. 


What is the p-factor?

An overarching factor that leads to vulnerability in many aspects of psychopathology. Suggested that emotion dysregulation and negative affectivity are at the root of this factor. 


What are polygenic effects?

Influences of groups of genes on emotional disorders. 


What are some social functions of embarrassment? 

- Moral commitment, concern over performance and institutions.

- Warns us of immoral acts and prevents us from making mistakes that unsettle social harmony

- Provokes forgiveness and reconciliation


What is the affect infusion model? 

Emotions or extended moods infuse into a cognitive task to influence judgment particularly if the task is complex. Negative emotions could induce people to pay more attention to the problem and draw conclusions in such a way that their prior beliefs did not affect their reasoning. 


What is the Strange Situation Test?

A mother, infant and stranger are in a strange room. The mother leaves the room, and later returns. In this situation, 2 year olds respond to the mother's absence with the stranger present in 3 different ways, which gave rise to the Secure, Anxious and Resistant attachment styles. (Secure, avoidant and resistant). 


What is parent-management training?

Parents are taught to use more effective parenting practices aimed at consistently identifying, monitoring and and punishing problem behaviors and reinforcing prosocial behaviors. 


What is the kindling hypothesis?

A mechanism by which people become progressively more vulnerable to depression. Emotional patterns become established as mental habits, so that depression is made more likely by less severe events. Is likely that a single episode of depression has the strongest influence on this process. 


Give a short summary of Chapin et al.'s study on chronic pain

- time spent meditating no correlation with anger/chronic pain 

- self-report reduced anger, increased pain acceptance, reduced pain severity 

- Reductions in anger corroborated by SOs 

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