Reading Foundations
Foundational Skills 2
Written + Oral Communication
Text Analysis
Give me a CHALLENGE
100

Which of the following would NOT be described as a sight word in a second-grade classroom?

A. said

b.missed

c. are

d. because

B. missed 

"Missed" is a decodable word and not particularly common, so it would not be on a list of sight words for young elementary students to memorize.

100

Read the sentence below and answer the question:

Please stop at the store for laundry detergent on the way home from work.

The sentence is an example of which of the following sentence types?


A. exclamatory

B. declarative

C. Imperative

D. Interrogative

C. imperative

An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. In the example, the speaker is requesting someone run an errand.

100

Transitional words and phrases are helpful in both spoken and written communication because they:

Select all answers that apply.

A. Link ideas to each other

B. Join Sentences together

C. State the authors purpose clearly

D. indicate the flow of time and events.

A + D.


A. Link ideas to each other

Transitions link ideas together from sentence to sentence or paragraph to paragraph

D. indicate the flow of time and events.

Transitions help move the audience through time and from one event to another


NOT B - COORDINATING CONJUNCTION joins sentences, not transitional words.

100

The Milkmaid and Her Pail, Adapted

Patty the Milkmaid was going to market carrying her milk in a pail on her head. As she went along, she began calculating and plotting what she would do with the money she would get for the milk.

"I'll buy some fowls from Farmer Brown!" she said.

A moment later, she added "And they will lay eggs each morning, which I will sell to the parson's wife."

Smiling, she added, "And, with the money that I get from the sale of these eggs, I'll buy myself a new shirt and hat."

Laughing, she added "And when I go to market, all the young men will come up and speak to me! Polly will be so jealous, but I don't care. I shall just look at her and toss my head like this..." And as she spoke she tossed her head back, and the pail fell off it, and all the milk was spilled on her and on the ground.

Wet, she walked home and told her mother what had occurred.

"Ah, my child," said the mother, "Do not count your chickens before they are hatched."

Which of the following is the theme of the fable?


A. Don't plan on something until you have it.

B. Don't look up to the sky.

C.Don't forget to milk the cow.

D.Don't wish misery on others.

A. Dont plan on something until you have it.

100

Which of the following words does not contain an example of a consonant digraph?

A. Past

B. This

C. Fish

D. When

A. Past

Past contains a consonant blend, not a consonant digraph. Consonant digraphs form a new sound, whereas consonant blends retain the letters' original sounds while blending them together.


Reading Foundations - Phonics and Spelling

200

A teacher writes the letter H on the board and makes the /h/ sound. She asks the class to name as many words as they can that start with the letter H. Which of the following is this activity most focused on improving?


A. Alphabetic Principle

B. Alphabetic Knowledge

C. Word Awareness

D. Print Awareness

A. alphabetic principle

Students must apply the alphabetic principle to generate words that start with the /h/ sound.


Alphabetic Knowledge - ability to recognize, name and WRITE letters.


Principal - focuses on recognizing SOUND.

200

Which of the following would be a component of effective vocabulary instruction?


A. The study of roots, prefixes and suffixes

B. defining words in isolation

C.students creating vocabulary lists for eachother out of independent reading.

D. Circling words that you do not understand while you read. 

A. The study of roots, prefixes, and suffixes.


Vocabulary section.

200

Which type of clause is the underlined portion of the sentence below an example of?

The movie, which she watched frequently, got scratched, so we threw it in the garbage.

A. relative clause

B. noun clause

C. subordinate clause

D. independent clause


D. independent clause

This is an example of an independent clause. An independent clause stands alone as a sentence.

200

When you come suddenly upon the porcupine in his native haunts, he draws his head back and down, puts up his shield, trails his broad tail, and waddles slowly away. His shield is the sheaf of larger quills upon his back, which he opens and spreads out in a circular form so that the whole body is quite hidden beneath it. The porcupine's great chisel-like teeth, which are quite as formidable as those of the woodchuck, he does not appear to use at all in his defense, but relies entirely upon his quills, and when those fail him he is done for.

The word "haunts" in the first sentence most closely means:

A. melancholy

b. ghosts

c. perseverance

d. habitat

d. Habitat

200

Students in a kindergarten class participate in the following activities during daily circle time:

  • singing nursery rhymes

  • stomping out the number of syllables in animal names

  • playing a game of I Spy to identify objects that rhyme with a given sound

These activities will help students to:


A. develop alphabetic awareness skills by matching rhyming words that start with the same sound.

B. learn phoneme-grapheme correspondence by identifying individual syllables in animal names.

C. build phonological awareness skills by playing with language in an engaging way.

D.manipulating phonemes by isolating individual speech sounds in words.

C. build phonological awareness skills by playing with language in an engaging way.

These activities engage students and hold their interest while they develop foundational phonological awareness skills.

300

A teacher is preparing her class to independently read an article about a new telescope being built by a group of scientists. During their pre-reading activity, the teacher purposefully includes challenging or unfamiliar vocabulary like "Magellan," "precision," and "resolution" in both the class discussion about telescopes and their anticipation guide. Which of the following best explains the teacher's reason for incorporating these words into their pre-reading activities?


A. To encourage student recognition of the words and improve their ability to connect their oral vocabulary to their written vocabulary

B. To increase student awareness of sound-letter correspondence

C. To support word analysis skills while reading independently

D. To help students predict the focus of the text.

A. To encourage student recognition of the words and improve their ability to connect their oral vocabulary to their written vocabulary.


**The teacher is working to familiarize the students with these new words so that they recognize them when they decode them in the text. An unfamiliar word can be challenging for a student to read in the context of a news article as described because the student may decode the word correctly, but not know they have read it correctly because they are not familiar with the word.

300

A first-grade student is reading aloud and mispronounces the following words: after, old, ask, and what. The student could benefit from additional instruction in which of the following areas?

A. Seperating words into phonemes

B. Automatic recognition of high-frequency words

C. phonics instruction on the 7 syllable types

D. reading at a consistent rate.

B.automatic recognition of high-frequency words

These four words are all first-grade sight words. The student should be able to identify and pronounce them correctly in isolation and within longer texts.


NOT A.

Separating a word into its phonemes means separating it into its individual sounds. This will not lead the student to increased fluency rates because the student will be stopping each time to sound out each word. Because these four words are frequently occurring sight words, the student should memorize them and be able to automatically recognize them in a text.


Text comprehension

300

A first-grade student writes the following sentence on the board: "Mi mom maks soop for us wen it is kold outsid."

Which of the following does the student's sentence best demonstrate?

A. transitional spelling

B.precommunicative spelling

C.semiphonetic spelling

D.phonetic spelling

D. phonetic spelling


ELA skills - written communication

300

Teachers of young children often read nursery rhymes and books with rhymes which help to promote phonological awareness by teaching children to:


a. relate phonics to reading.

B.listen for common sounds at the end of words and make predictions about those sounds.

C. build on skills they already know.

D.break words into individual morphemes.

B. listen for common sounds at the end of words and make predictions about those sounds.

Phonological awareness is the ability to hear sounds in spoken words.

300

Precise language usage is generally more important for written communication than verbal communication. Which of the following is NOT a reason why?

A. The listener can use visual cues to determine the tone and meaning of a speaker.

B. Visual cues are available to help the reader determine tone and meaning with written text.

C. The author's tone must be interpreted in written text, which could confuse a reader's perception of meaning.

D. The reader can't ask clarifying questions in written text.

B. Visual cues are available to help the reader determine tone and meaning with written text.

In spoken communication, there is usually a visual context and nonverbal communication for what the speaker is trying to convey. Writing that is lacking precise description or language leaves the reader to fill in the blanks, which can lead to a misunderstanding of the text.


Foundational - Language and Literacy 

400

A reading teacher has built 50 minutes into her weekly schedule each week for students to read a book of their choice. What is the biggest benefit of using class time for student-led independent reading?

A. Students will be able to meet classroom reading goals without reading at home.

B. It allows the teacher to catch up on lesson plans and grading during this time.

C. It promotes the idea that reading is pleasurable and enjoyable.

D. Students can practice reading lessons learned that week under the guidance of the teacher.

C. It promotes the idea that reading is pleasurable and enjoyable.

By providing class time to read books of student choice, the teacher is validating that reading is fun and worth spending time doing.


Reading Foundations - Fluency 

400

A teacher would like her students to develop their phonological awareness. Which of the following activities would best help students develop their phoneme substitution skills?

A. The teacher writes the word "stop" on the board and next to it write "st-o-p". She then runs her hand from left to right under the word saying stop with all the sounds together. She then writes the word sled, and asks students to write it like she did using the slashes.


B. The teacher asks students to say boat, then asks them to take away the "t" sound and say the word thats left.

C. The teacher writes several words on the board, such as "bat, monkey, and forever" and has students say each word out loud and clap to represent each phonetic unit. 

D. The teacher writes the word lake on the board and says it out loud. She puts the picture of a cake next to _ ake and asks students what sound would fill in the blank.

D.The teacher writes the word lake on the board and says it out loud. She puts the picture of a cake next to _ake and asks students what sound would fill in the blank.

This activity would help students develop their ability to substitute phonemes because they are learning to change the first phoneme in the word from the "l" in "lake" to the "c" in "cake." In this case, one phoneme is being substituted and the rest of the word stays the same. This activity will help students develop their overall phonemic awareness.

400

Mr. Otwinowski is working with his sixth-grade students on why dialogue needs to be punctuated in written text. Which activity would best illustrate the need for dialogue punctuation in written text?


A. Read a story with no dialogue to illustrate how boring it is.

B.Assign a worksheet where students practice adding punctuation marks to existing sentences.

C.Present students with multiple sentences that could be misunderstood without dialogue punctuation.

D. Read to students from a paragraph without punctuation marks while the students follow along.

C. Present students with multiple sentences that could be misunderstood without dialogue punctuation.

Because it targets how missing punctuation in dialogue can confuse the author's meaning, this activity is the best choice.

400

A kindergarten teacher has been working with her students on blending onsets and rimes. Most of the class is struggling to grasp this new skill. The teacher recognizes the need to back up and review a previous skill before continuing with whole-class instruction on blending onsets and rimes. Which of the following would be the most reasonable skill for her to review with her class?


A.phoneme substitution

B.letter to sound correspondence

C.word awareness

D. syllable awareness

D. syllable awareness


Recognizing and counting syllables is a skill that is generally developed before the ability to blend onsets and rimes, but still a more advanced skill than the other early phonological skills included as answer options. For example, syllable awareness will occur after word awareness and letter to sound correspondence, but before developing the ability to blend onsets and rimes.

400

A fourth-grade teacher reserves time each day for her students to write about their reading in their reader's notebook.

Today, she asks them to answer the following three questions:

  1. What is one event or idea from your reading that connects to another text you have read? Explain the connection.

  2. Describe a chapter, paragraph, or sentence from your reading that reminded you of a personal experience. Explain the connection.

  3. Think about your reading. Identify one aspect of the book that has impacted the way your see or understand something in the world, outside of things you have personally experienced. Explain the connection.

This activity is designed to:

A. deepen the reader's understanding of the text by considering the idea in a larger context.

B. facilitate student determination of how the setting impacts the plot in the story they are reading.

C. be a reflective experience to help students brainstorm for their own writing.

D. encourage the reader to analyze the author's craft.

A.  deepen the reader's understanding of the text by considering the idea in a larger context.

Connecting one's own experiences with ideas in a text can improve comprehension.


Text analysis - main and supporting ideas.


500

A kindergarten teacher incorporates the use of Big Books into the daily lesson, pointing to each word as she reads. Which of the following would this activity best reinforce?

Select all answers that apply.

A

A. graphophonemic skills

B. procedural text comprehension

C. print orientation skills

D. grapheme skills

A,C, D


A. graphophonemic skills

Graphophonemic knowledge is understanding the relationship between symbols (letters and words) and sounds of a language and would be supported by this activit

C. print orientation skills

Watching the teacher point to words while she reads would reinforce the concept that writing moves from left to right, and top to bottom.


D. grapheme skills

A grapheme is a symbol, letter, or combination of letters that represents a single sound. These skills could be reinforced through the use of Big Books.

500

A third-grade class visits the library weekly. Approximately once a month, one student checks out her favorite book, along with other new books. She has now taken this book home for independent reading many times. How can the teacher best support this student's fluency development?

A. by emailing the student's parents about encouraging her to read only new books

B. by allowing the student to continue periodically checking out and rereading the book she loves

C. by requiring the student to check out other books instead

D. by allowing the student to check out the book but also helping her choose books above her independent reading level in order to continue being challenged

B. by allowing the student to continue periodically checking out and rereading the book she loves

Rereading books is good for developing reading fluency. Also, reading should be fun, so if this student is enjoying the book, she should continue to check it out when she wants to. If the student were only reading this book, or the rereading was excessive and preventing her from exploring other texts, then it would be appropriate for the teacher to encourage her to expand her choices.

500

A teacher wants to help her students understand how a written text can be improved through oral language. Which of the activities below would best help her students understand this concept?

A. Have students rewrite a short story with a new audience in mind.

B. Have students read a story silently and then listen to the teacher read it aloud with animated gestures and expression.

C.Have students read a short story silently and then draw an image of the moral of the story.

D.Have students rewrite a short story to include new examples of figurative language.





B. Have students read a story silently and then listen to the teacher read it aloud with animated gestures and expression.

By rereading the story using animated oral language techniques, the teacher can best illustrate how oral language changes and improves the telling of a story.

500

Which of the following activities would best support a student's ability to decode multisyllabic words?

A. Increase classroom time spent on teacher modeled reading.

B. Provide practice matching prefixes, roots, and suffixes to create new words.

C. Focus classroom instruction on multisyllabic sight words instead of sight words with only one syllable.

D. Provide practice with 3 letter words, asking the students to replace letters one at a time to form new words.

B. Provide practice matching prefixes, roots, and suffixes to create new words.

Word analysis can train students to break up longer unfamiliar words into smaller chunks that they recognize.

500

The dryness of the South African climate makes very strongly for its salubrity. It is the absence of moisture no less than the elevation above sea-level that gives to the air its fresh, keen, bracing quality, the quality which enables one to support the sun-heat, which keeps the physical frame in vigour, which helps children to grow up active and healthy, which confines to comparatively few districts that deadliest foe of Europeans, swamp-fever. It also keeps crime rates low.

Which of the following statements does not fit into the pattern of logic developed in the passage?

A. Crime rates are related to weather.

B. The air in South Africa is bracing.

C. Children are mostly healthy due to the climate.

D.The sun is strong in South Africa, but not dangerous.



Crime rates are related to weather.

This statement does not fit the pattern of logic in the passage.

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