Reading Informational Text
Reading Literary Text

What is main idea/central idea?

The key point or topic that a text or paragraph conveys. What the passage is all about.


Tell me three common themes that can be found between the stories "How the Grinch Stole Christmas" and "A Christmas Carol."

Possible responses:

-People can change

-Don't be greedy

-Hurt people hurt people

-Community and connection are important


a) How many pieces of evidence should your essay have in all?

b) How many sentences of explaining should each piece of evidence have?

a) 6

b) 2


What does perspective mean?

a particular attitude toward or a way of regarding something; a point of view


What does "vague" mean?



An article discusses the history of the bicycle, highlighting its invention and major improvements over time. What text structure is likely used? 

a) description

b) chronological order/sequence

c) compare and contrast

d) cause and effect

e) problem and solution

b) chronological order/sequence

What is a theme in the story "Dark They Were and Golden Eyed" by Ray Bradbury? (This is a story we read earlier this year...where people from Earth moved to Mars)

answers may vary; one correct answer would be how space travel/colonization of other planets is not wise/ethical.


What should be included in the introduction paragraph of a literary analysis essay?

1. hook

2. short summary of what both stories are about

3. thesis statement including three common themes


What does emphasize mean?

to give special importance or prominence to something in speaking or writing


"These people had the courage to help Jews by providing hiding places, food, money, clothes, and false papers."

What is the meaning of the word "papers" as it is used in the sentence? 

a) news reports

b) personal identification documents

c) material for writing escape plans

d) ration cards in order to get food while traveling

b) personal identification documents


Public libraries deserve increased funding, not cuts.  These institutions are cornerstones of our communities, offering essential resources and opportunities for everyone.  Studies by the American Library Association show libraries contribute significantly to literacy rates. They provide free access to books, computers, and educational programs, empowering individuals of all ages to learn and grow.  Libraries also serve as vital community hubs. They host events, offer meeting spaces for local groups, and provide a safe haven for children and adults seeking knowledge or simply a quiet space.  In an age of digital divides, libraries bridge the gap by offering free internet access and digital literacy training, ensuring everyone has the tools they need to succeed in the 21st century.  Defunding libraries weakens the very fabric of our communities. They are more than just repositories of books; they are engines of opportunity and deserve our investment. 

What evidence and examples does the author of this passage use to support the idea that libraries contribute positively to literacy rates?

Studies by the American Library Association show libraries contribute significantly to literacy rates. They provide free access to books, computers, and educational programs, empowering individuals of all ages to learn and grow.


How does an author develop the theme of a story?

Through characters (words and actions), setting, plot


What are two key words that signify that you are supposed to write an informative essay?

analyze and explain


"But scientists found the answer to why teens make bad decisions might be simpler: the allure of rewards. Rewards, even small ones, entice teens more than they do adults." What does the word entice mean as it is used here?

a) to discourage

b) to inspire

c) to challenge

d) to attract

d) to attract


 "Achilles was a lion among men" 

a) What kind of figurative language is this?

b) What does the phrase mean?

a) metaphor comparing Achilles to a lion

b) Achilles has the strength and ferocity of a lion


Imagine a world where everyone receives a regular, no-strings-attached sum of money from the government. This concept, called Universal Basic Income (UBI), is gaining traction. Proponents argue UBI would alleviate poverty, allowing people to meet basic needs without fear. It could also boost the economy as people have more money to spend on local businesses. Opponents fear UBI would disincentivize work, but studies suggest otherwise. With financial security, people can pursue education, training, or take care of loved ones, ultimately contributing to a more productive workforce. UBI has the potential to create a more just and secure society for all. 

Write down the sentence from the passage that best demonstrates the author's point of view.

UBI has the potential to create a more just and secure society for all.


“Hope” is the thing with feathers -

That perches in the soul -

And sings the tune without the words -

And never stops - at all -

And sweetest - in the Gale - is heard -

And sore must be the storm -

That could abash the little Bird

That kept so many warm -

I’ve heard it in the chillest land -

And on the strangest Sea -

Yet - never - in Extremity,

It asked a crumb - of me.

What is the central theme of this poem?

a) overcoming obstacles requires more than just hope

b) what nature needs often conflicts with what people want

c) Love and family can help people get through difficult times

d) one can always rely on hope in difficult times

d) one can always rely on hope in difficult times


Write a multi-paragraph response in which you analyze why the Philae mission was important for scientific research.

Manage your time carefully so that you can: 

-review the passages; -plan your response; 

-write your response; -revise and edit your response. 

Be sure to: 

-include an introduction; 

-use evidence from the passages to support your explanation; 

-avoid overly relying on one passage; and 

-include a conclusion.

informative essay


What does distinction mean?

a difference or contrast between similar things or people


The "Beatnicks" cloistered themselves mostly in New York City and San Francisco. While they were a small group, their work became some of the most influential poetry in the English language.

What does "cloistered" mean as it is used here?

a) advertised

b) separated

c) defended

d) protected

b) separated


While the idea of guaranteed income sounds appealing, implementing Universal Basic Income (UBI) raises several concerns. Firstly, the cost of providing UBI for everyone could be astronomical, requiring significant tax increases. This could burden middle-class earners, potentially negating the benefits for low-income individuals. Additionally, UBI might not address the root causes of poverty, such as lack of job opportunities or affordable childcare. Wouldn't it be better to invest in programs that directly address those issues?  Furthermore, there's no guarantee UBI recipients would spend the money wisely. It's important to consider the potential pitfalls of UBI before embarking on such a large-scale initiative. 

Part A: What is the author's point of view in this passage?

Part B: What reasons does the author give to support his/her claim? (Give at least 3)

Part A: UBI may not be as great as it seems, as it raises several concerns

Part B: tax increases, hurting middle class, failure to address root causes of poverty, recipients may not spend money wisely


This morning
the beautiful white heron
was floating along above the water

and then into the sky of this
the one world
we all belong to

where everything
sooner or later
is a part of everything else

which thought made me feel
for a little while
quite beautiful myself.

How do lines 7-9 develop the speakers point of view in the poem?

a) they reveal that the speaker thinks it is hard to find beauty in nature

b) they demonstrate why the speaker has a difficult time staying focused

c) they explain why the speaker is feeling sad about the state of the world

d) they convey that the speaker understands the connection between life and death

d) they convey that the speaker understands the connection between life and death


Come up with an essay outline for the following essay prompt:

"Does playing video games significantly affect physical health? Write a multi-paragraph response in which you make and support a claim about whether or not playing video games significantly affects physical health."

1. Hook, background, claim (including position and two reasons)

2. topic sentence (1st reason), evidence, explain, evidence, explain, closing sentence

3. topic sentence (2nd reason), evidence, explain, evidence, explain, closing sentence

4. counterclaim, evidence, explain, rebuttal, evidence, explain, closing sentence

5. restate thesis statement, summarize main points, call-to-action or satisfying closing


The principal announced a new initiative to create a more collaborative learning environment. Instead of rows of isolated desks facing the teacher, classrooms would be furnished with movable tables and chairs to encourage student interaction and group work. This pedagogical approach aims to foster a more dynamic and engaging learning experience.

Based on the context clues in the passage, what is the most likely meaning of the phrase "pedagogical approach"?

(a) Traditional teaching method 

(b) Strict disciplinary style 

(c) Modern and interactive teaching method

(d) Focus on rote memorization

(c) Modern and interactive teaching method


Ms. Garcia adjusted her spectacles, her brow furrowed as she peered at the painting. "It's...interesting, dear," she said carefully, "but the use of color feels...chaotic."

Maya, the young artist, bristled slightly. "Chaotic? It's expressive! It captures the raw emotions of the moment."

Ms. Garcia sighed, a touch of sympathy in her eyes. "Expressionism is valuable, Maya, but sometimes structure is needed to convey that message effectively. Think of it like music - a beautiful melody can still have a clear rhythm, wouldn't you agree?"

Maya hesitated, tapping her paintbrush against her palette. "I guess," she mumbled, unconvinced. "But can't strong emotions break the rules sometimes?"

Contrast the perspectives of Maya and Mrs. Garcia

Mrs. Garcia believes in structure and rules when it comes to art, whereas Maya feels as though art should be expressive and anything goes.