Motor Control
Motivational Interviewing
Pain Science
Emotional Intelligence & Comm.
Misc. Populations

What is the difference between retention of a skill and transfer of a skill

Retention: able to perform the same skill practiced 

Transfer: able to perform the skill under various conditions and environments or perform a different but related skill


Name the 5 stages of change according to the Transtheoretical Model

Pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance 


Name the 3 types of pain mechanisms

nociceptive, nociplastic, peripheral neuropathic


What are 4 core-competencies of Emotional Intelligence? 

Self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationship management


Generally, males vs. females have different communication tendencies at times. Name 2 of these

Direct vs. indirect, apologetic vs. unapologetic, asking vs. not asking questions, therapeutic boundary differences


Name 2 conditions of learning 

Practice frequency/type, feedback type/frequency, environment conditions


Define "sustain talk" and give an example

sustain talk: comments made that support the status quo

ie: "by the time I get home I am exhausted and can't imagine trying to go workout"


Name 3 things that can shape an individual's pain response:

past experiences, social context, beliefs, ability to logic/reason, knowledge/edu level, memories, past trauma, fear & anxiety, expectations


Name 1 hallmark sign of self-awareness

self-confidence, self-deprecating sense of humor, realistic self-assessments


Name 2 of the 3 different "temperaments" a child may have

slow-to-warm, challenging, easy


Provide an example of Knowledge of Results feedback

KR: Did you reach your goal?

Goal: Run 400m in <1 min

KR: You ran 400m in 58 seconds.

KP: You sprinted too hard right off the blocks and then were too fatigued coming into the last 100m leg which was not a strong finish. 


One of the microskills of MI is reflections. Provide one of the main purposes of using Reflections 

1. validate the patient

2. clarify and make known to the pt you understand

3. Keep the convo going, inspire further discussion


Provide the 2 questions used on the PHQ 2 and the cutoff score for providing the PHQ9

1. How often over the past 2 weeks have you been feeling down, depressed, or hopeless? 

2. How often over the past 2 weeks have you had little interest or pleasure in doing things?



Name 3 factors that may impact one's tone and inflection

Proximity to a patient, limit of or extent of physical contact in a situation, authority vs. friendly, eye contact, volume and pace of interaction, dynamics of reciprocal self-development (growth through relationships)


Name 3 integrated therapy strategies that could be implemented during a child's routine?

clear expectations (ie: chart, pictures), improving physical space, priming (clear simple directions & cues), positive reinforcement, AT, increasing opportunities for practice, peer-mediated learning

Name 1 pro and 1 con of KR feedback

Pros: motivation, error info guides to goal, association between sensory feedback and movement outcome

Cons: dependency, decreased ability to develop intrinsic feedback, difficulty retrieving from long-term memory


This is an example of _______ by the patient. 

I just don’t know how to get over that hurdle. It gets in my way every time. I have really good intentions and then each time I try to do it, it gets harder and harder.

Sustain talk


Explain positive vs. negative framing- which is easier for the brain to perform? 

Positive framing - using positive words, words that heal, and generally positive or half-full statements to convey information compared to negative 

ie: Everything will be ok vs. Don't worry; There is a 50% chance everything will work out well vs. 50% of cases do not have good outcomes

It is easier for the brain to go from positive to negative than negative to positive - start with positive! Problem solving takes twice as long with a negative to positive shift than vice versa


Name 2 non-verbal signs that may demonstrate someone lacks confidence

Downward eye gaze, closed off body language, head turning away or diverting eye gaze with speaking


Name 3 considerations regarding communication with an older adult in the clinic

speaking clearly & audibly, may need repetition, generally difficult to describe pain, demos and visual cueing or prompting, reminding of tasks or redirection

Provide an example of implicit memory and an example of explicit memory

Implicit: driving home without thinking about it, performing an UQS (procedural- reflexive motor skills, recall generally unconscious)

Explicit: recalling 12 cranial nerves and their functions (declarative- factual knowledge, takes conscious effort)


Name the 4 microskills of MI

reflections, summaries, open ended questions, affirmations


Explain the Chronic Pain Cycle

Pain onset --> fear/anxiety --> brain more focused on the problem --> CNS changes begin --> more pain, more anxiety, less movement (often leads to wt gain and sleep loss) --> continued CNS changes


Name 3 things that someone with high social-awareness may do well

Reads the room, understands peers and patients' emotions, communicates and collaborates well with a team, recognizes others emotions and the impact one's emotions has on such, recognizes and understands dynamics within an organization/team


Name 2 of the 4 main stressors you want to avoid when working with an adult with dementia or cognitive changes

overstimulation, excess fatigue, excess demand, change

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