Diversity
Evolution
Animal Physiology
Genetics
Plants
100

This word refers to our classification system of all organisms

taxonomy (accept binomial nomenclature)

100

The fundamental requirement for any evolutionary process to occur

mutations
100

It's the site of diffusion of gases and nutrients in the circulatory system

capillaries

100

Identify 3 key differences between mitosis and meiosis 

- meiosis is missing a stage of interphase
- meiosis creates 4 daughter cells
- meiosis produces genetic variety
- meiosis occurs only in gametes 

100

The plant phylum that grows low to the ground and lacks xylem and phloem

non-vascular plants

200

This phylum contains insects, lobsters and crabs

Arthropoda

200

These types of structures have no common ancestor, but share a common function, due to convergent evolution. Example: A humans hand and a lobsters claw.

Analogous features 

200

Explain why leaving a salty cracker in your mouth long enough  will cause it to taste sweet

amylase breaks down the carbohydrates of the cracker into simple sugars like glucose, fructose...etc. 

200

This disorder can be diagnosed using a karyotype, and involves monosomy of the X chromosome

Turner Syndrome 

200
Specialized cells that open and close in response to signals; the exit site for transpiration

guard cells; stomata

300

These structures help us classify amoeba as sarcodines (AKA - false foot)

pseudopods

300

Under good living conditions, what is the driving force behind the evolution of animals who cannot self-replicate 

sexual selection 

300

This is the largest blood vessel carrying deoxygenated blood.

The Vena Cava

300

This process involves the variation and separation of maternal and paternal chromosomes to either side of the cell in Anaphase I of meiosis.

Random (independent) assortment  

300

If you observe scattered vascular bundles in the cross section of a stem, you are looking at this type of plant

Monocot

400

It's the phylum and symmetry of jellyfish (need both)

cnidarians / radial symmetry

400

In giraffes , short necks lead to an inability to reach leaves on trees, but necks that are too long can't support the giraffes head.... what type of selection will this lead to?

Stabilizing selection

400

A non-smoker is having difficulty fully exhaling all the air in their lungs. Identify what reading on a spirometer graph would be lower than normal, and what respiratory organ may be at fault. 

Expiratory reserve volume; diaphragm fails to fully compress lungs 
400

Explain why some traits are always inherited together regardless of crossing over or genetic diversity 

gene-linkage: certain genes sit too close together on the chromosome to be separated during the formation of recombinants 

400

A plant appears to have difficulty growing despite ideal conditions. It appears there is a mutation within its genome that prevents the production of a specific substance. What is not being produced?

auxin hormone 

500

It's the class of organism that is multicellular, heterotrophic, motile, bilaterally symmetrical, viviparous, and placental.

mammalia

500

Outline the full extent of what happened to the peppered moths during the industrial revolution. Mention the sequence of events, as well as the type of selection that occured. 

- black moths were rare while white moths were common
- smog and pollutants covered the birch trees, turning them dark.
- darker bark provided camouflage for black moths and made them harder to find for predators.
- White moths were easily eaten and had reduced fitness.
black moths became more common due to natural selection
- directional selection 

500
Outline the 4 hormones in the menstrual cycle and highlight their feedback mechanisms to each other 

x

500

In tacos, hard shells (H) are dominant to soft shells (h), and guacamole (G) is dominant to salsa (g).  On Taco Tuesday, two tacos (both HhGg) are crossed... if you eat 16 of their baby tacos, how many should have soft shells and guacamole?

3

500

Outline in detail the process by which a large tree is able to move water from the roots up several meters to the leaves. Mention the properties of water, the correct terminology, and the name of this process

Transpiration ensures that water is able to move from the roots up into the plant leaves regardless of plant height.
Root cells pull water actively into the shoot of the plant and build pressure from the base upwards. The water is carried through the xylem via cohesion and adhesion. Cohesion ensures water molecules above pull water from below, while adhesion allows water to stick to the xylem walls and defy gravity. At the leaves, stomata open to allow water to evaporate - further pulling lower water upwards 

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