Context Clues

Ryan was looking forward to sleeping over at his friend Robert's house. Though they had been classmates for a while, the two had only recently become good friends.  Robert met Ryan on the porch and the two did their secret handshake and started playing right away. First they played pirates in Robert's tree fort. Then it started getting dark and they went inside of Robert's house. As soon as they walked in the house, Ryan's eyes starting getting red and itchy. He saw a big orange cat sitting on the couch. Then he started sneezing uncontrollably. "I'm sorry, Robert. It's been a lot of fun, but I have to call my mom." 

Why do Ryan's eyes get red and itchy when he walks into Robert's house? 

He is allergic to the cat "He saw a big orange cat sitting on the couch. Then he started sneezing uncontrollably." 

We know when you are allergic to something you sneeze. When you are allergic and cant stop sneezing, your eyes are red and itchy 


Name one possible cause of the following: School was cancelled

snow storm, no internet, power outage, tornado hit school


Her greed and selfishness are deplorable traits.

Define deplorable.

Need choices?  Ask for them.





This character type changes throughout the story



True or False: In direct characterization, we (the reader) have to guess the character traits the character has.



Andre and Kate were convinced that the old house was deserted. After all, no one had been seen coming in or out for the past year. At last, Kate could no longer stand the suspense.  She dared Andre to solve the mystery simply by knocking on the door. When the two friends saw the frail, limping old man appear, they knew he was someone who needed their help.  Why doesn't the man leave his house?

He may be too ill. 

He may be too frail.


Name the italicized part of the sentence.
Brandon misplaced his drumsticks, so he was unable to play in the concert.

Is the italicized part a cause or effect? 



He made an innocuous comment about the dress she chose, neither insulting it nor complimenting it.

Define innocuous.



not harmful


Andy saw his neighbor struggling to start her lawnmower. He came over and tried to fix it, but it would not start. Then, he offered her his. What character trait does Andy show?

kindness, caring, generosity, etc


Define 'context clues'

The words in sentences, or specific events, which help us to understand information which is not explicitly (directly) stated.

"William, don't forget your towel!" Mom shouted as she applied sunblock on the baby. William threw the folding chairs in the back of the minivan and shouted through the garage door, "OK Mom!" He then ran up and grabbed his towel. "Georgie!" William shouted. There was no response. Mom packed the baby up into the car seat. "William, can you help me with his umbrella?" William ran down the stairs, almost tripping over a chew toy, and then he helped his mother load the large umbrella in the minivan. "Mom, I can't find Georgie," William said. His mother shrugged and replied, "That's OK, William. He probably shouldn't come with us anyway." 

Who is Georgie?

Where are they going?

The dog

The beach


Mark went on a fishing trip with his father.  His father caught three fish.  Mark caught two fish. Mark's fish were so little that he had to throw them back.

CAUSE: Mark's fish were very small

What was the EFFECT?

He had to throw them back


The morale of the team was high, as they just made it into the state finals.

Define: morale





What is it called when an author tells you in the text a specific character trait?

Ex "Dan was a happy, loving guy."

Direct Characterization


What is an inference?

an educated guess - when you take the information presented and combine that with YOUR background knowledge to make a good guess.


Francine's heart raced as she stepped out onto the stage and made her way to the podium.  "Why would they want to elect someone like me?" she thought.

Francine knew she had the skills for the job. She knew she could help make high school a better place. What she didn't know was if they would give her the votes she needed to make it happen.

Why is Francine giving a speech?

She is running for an office ... e.g., class president


Little Johnny Wiggins fell down a well on the farm. His family looked for him. Finally, at sundown, Mr. Wiggins found Johnny. He had been trapped in the well for three hours.

CAUSE: Johnny Wiggins fell down a well.

What was the EFFECT?

He was trapped for three hours


When Mom found out we were getting visitors any minute, she rushed around the house, cleaning in a frenzy.

Define: frenzy


controlled manner



Name four out of five parts of the STEAL Wheel



Effect on Others




Name a dynamic character and why that particular character is dynamic.

Answers will vary.


As the teacher brought the class back from the washroom, he noticed that Alvin and Elijah were nowhere to be seen. He asked the class, "Has anyone seen Alvin or Elijah?" Most of the students confirmed that they had not seen them, except for Rodney, who remained silent while tapping his foot on the floor anxiously. The teacher noticed this. "Rodney, do you happen to know where your best buddies Alvin and Elijah went?" Rodney looked away and said, "Nah, I haven't seen them." The teacher notified the office of the missing students. An announcement was made over the PA system and a few minutes later, Alvin and Elijah returned to class. Both of them were very sweaty and Elijah was carrying a basketball. "Sorry we took so long. We had to use the bathroom," said Elijah. "Yeah," chimed in Alvin, "it took longer than we thought." 

Will the teacher believe them?

Where were the boys?


Playing basketball



  1. The prices of petrol and diesel in the domestic market have remained unchanged for the past few months.
  2. The crude oil prices in the international market have gone up substantially in the last few months.

A) Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

B) Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

C) Both the statements I and II are independent causes

D) Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes



He was a purveyor of rare books and was able to find any first edition book you might want to buy.

define: purveyor


land measurer



The Grinch is a.....




Choose ONE from each pair





Stock characters are....

stereotypical characters like the bully, the sidekick, or the damsel in distress