Physical Development
Physical development part 2
Cognitive Development
Cognitive Development part 2
MISC
100

Running, jumping, and skipping are examples of ________________________.

a. Gross motor skills

b. Fine motor skills

c. Gross cognitive skills

d. Fine cognitive skills

a. Gross motor skills

100

Which of the following is TRUE regarding motor development in early childhood?

a. Fine motor skills typically develop later than gross motor skills

b. Fine motor skills develop more quickly than gross motor skills

c. Gross motor skills are more highly developed in girls than in boys

d. Gross motor skills develop proximodistally but fine motor skills do not

a. Fine motor skills typically develop later than gross motor skills

100

Young children have trouble understanding that objects in one category can also belong in a subcategory (e.g., a golden retriever is part of the category “animal” but also part of the subcategory “dogs”). This principle is known as

a. Centration

b. Conservation

c. Class inclusion

d. Animism

c. Class inclusion

100

Head Start is...

a. The idea that gifted toddlers have a head start when they attend a high-quality daycare

b. A comprehensive early childhood education program designed to provide low-income families with access to high-quality preschool

c. An intervention program used at daycares to help support children with ADHD

d. An elite early education program for wealthy families who wish to offer their children the highest quality preschool possible

b. A comprehensive early childhood education program designed to provide low-income families with access to high-quality preschool

100

All of the following are features of a positive home environment EXCEPT: 

a. Limited opportunities for gross motor play

b. Responsive parenting

c. No harsh punishment

d. Abundant opportunities for stimulation

a. Limited opportunities for gross motor play

200

Compared to infancy, height gains during early childhood occur

a. At a slower rate

b. At the same rate

c. At a faster rate

d. Too varied between individuals to quantify

a. At a slower rate

200

Brain ________________ is possible because of sprouting (growth of new dendrites) and the redundancy of neural connections.

a. Priming

b. Plasticity

c. Myelination

d. Hemorrhage

b. Plasticity

200

Information first enters _____________, then is encoded and stored in _____________ until it needs to be retrieved.

a. Sensory memory; long-term memory

b. Semantic memory; long-term memory

c. Sensory memory; episodic memory

d. Short-term memory; sensory memory

a. Sensory memory; long-term memory

200

The assumption that words refer to whole objects rather than parts of an object (e.g., truck tire) or characteristics of an object (e.g., yellow) refers to

a. Contrast assumption

b. Whole-object assumption

c. Centration

d. Class inclusion

b. Whole-object assumption

200

Somnambulism, or sleepwalking

a. Is more common in children than adults

b. Usually lasts most of the night (on average 8-9 hours)

c. Is a way for people to express impulses they would inhibit while awake

d. Is generally remembered the next morning

a. Is more common in children than adults

300

Mr. James teaches kindergarten. He wants to add a class to his curriculum to help his students develop fine motor skills. Which of the following classes would you recommend?

a. Gymnastics

b. Arts and crafts

c. Educational movie time

d. Running

b. Arts and crafts

300

Which of the following does NOT reflect an environmental influence on motor development?

a. Children inherit strong gross motor skills from their parents

b. Children learn how to engage in gross motor play by observing peers

c. Children engage in rough-and-tumble play with peers

d. Children are encouraged by caregivers to play outside several hours per day

a. Children inherit strong gross motor skills from their parents

300

Caleb’s mother takes Caleb’s whole sandwich, cuts it in half, and gives him both halves. If Caleb has not yet passed the conservation tasks, he would assume that he now has ____________________.

a. More sandwich

b. Less sandwich

c. The same amount of sandwich

d. A triangle shaped sandwich

a. More sandwich

300

A child is shown a band-aid box and told to guess what is inside. The child guesses band-aids. When they open it, the box actually has candles in it. The experimenter asks the child what another child (who has not seen the demonstration yet) will guess is in the box. Children who do not yet have fully developed theory of mind will say that another child will guess _________________ are in the box.

a. Band-aids

b. Candles

c. Band-aids and candles

d. Neither band-aids nor candles

b. Candles


BONUS: The band-aid task described above is an example of a ___________________ task.

a. Conservation

b. Empathy

c. False belief

d. Three Mountain

300

Around 2.5-years-old, the development of vocabulary_________________________.

a. Occurs rapidly (on average, 9 new words a day)

b. Slows down dramatically (on average, just 1 new word a day)

c. May stop for periods of up to 3 months

d. Occurs significantly more quickly for boys than for girls

a. Occurs rapidly (on average, 9 new words a day)

400

_______________is an elimination disorder defined by the failure to control the bladder.

a. Encopresis

b. Enuresis

c. Soilosis

d. Scoprius

b. Enuresis

400

What is the best way to get a child to eat their vegetables?

a. Always pair vegetables with sugary treats

b. Allow the child to watch additional television for eating vegetables

c. Ignore the child until they eat their vegetables

d. Provide multiple, frequent opportunities for the child to try the vegetables and give them in small portions

d. Provide multiple, frequent opportunities for the child to try the vegetables and give them in small portions

400

The “Three Mountain Task” is used by Piaget and others to demonstrate the concept of

a. Sensorimotor operations

b. Visuospatial cognitive development

c. Egocentrism

d. Turn-taking

c. Egocentrism

400

Transductive reasoning is when young children believe

a. There is a causal relationship between two things that are not causally related

b. Inanimate objects are actually alive (e.g., the sky is sad)

c. Things in the environment are made by humans (e.g., adults made the rain)

d. When you flatten out a ball of playdough you now have less playdough

a. There is a causal relationship between two things that are not causally related

400

Which of the following statements regarding pretend play is FALSE?

a. Violent pretend play is associated with having less empathy

b. Solitary pretend play is associated with lower peer acceptance

c. High quality pretend play is associated with lower social skills

d. High quality pretend play is associated with better social relationships with peers

c. High quality pretend play is associated with lower social skills

500

28. Myelination between which two brain areas is important for motor development?

a. The cerebral cortex and limbic system

b. The cerebral cortex and cerebellum

c. The prefrontal cortex and limbic system

d. The prefrontal cortex and corpus callosum

b. The cerebral cortex and cerebellum

500

The ________________ is a bundle of nerves that connects the right and left hemisphere.

a. Corpus callosum

b. Prefrontal cortex

c. Cerebellum

d. Occipital lobe

a. Corpus callosum

500

Regarding conservation tasks, children in the preoperational stage may believe that two different shaped beakers filled with the same amount of water actually have different amounts of water. Which explanation does NOT explain why children in this stage struggle with this concept?

a. Children at this stage only think in one dimension and cannot focus on both height and width at the same time

b. The fluidity of the substance (liquid) does not allow for concrete processing

c. Children at this stage are unable to recognize that actions are reversible

d. Children at this stage struggle with manipulating representations

b. The fluidity of the substance (liquid) does not allow for concrete processing

500

For a child to have theory of mind, they must

a. Understand that spreading out pennies in a line does not mean that there are now more pennies

b. Understand that the appropriate way to speak with a teacher is different from the appropriate way to speak with a peer

c. Understand that labels typically refer to whole objects rather than parts

d. Understand that they have their own beliefs, feelings, knowledge, etc. and that other individuals may have different beliefs, feelings, knowledge, etc., than their own

d. Understand that they have their own beliefs, feelings, knowledge, etc. and that other individuals may have different beliefs, feelings, knowledge, etc., than their own

500

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Piaget’s preoperational stage?

a. Egocentrism

b. Difficulty with conservation tasks

c. Precausal thinking

d. Mastery of mental operations

d. Mastery of mental operations

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