Pre Civil War & Civil War
The Gilded Age

South Carolina was the first state to succeed from the Union. Who was the United States President that was elected and was the final justification for succession.

Abraham Lincoln


What was Lincoln's Plan for Reconstruction and what did it aim to do?

It was called the 10% plan and it was fairly lenient since he wanted only 10% of the southern citizens that were able to vote in the 1860 election to pledge loyalty to the United States 

He also only wanted to punish only the top CSA leadership and not the general population.


What does the term gilded mean?

Something with a golden thin exterior and much cheaper/less desirable metal underneath like lead.


Who was a populist?

A person in poor or working class America

A person who was farming, working in factories, the mines, the tailors/seamstress


Who was a Progressive?

The upper middle class, often it was the women like Jane Adams who activated for social change.

They had something over the factory owners that the populists did not have (most were replaceable) which was dollar votes


Where was the opening shots of the Civil War?


Who was the US representative who beat Senator Charles Sumner with a cane on the Senate floor in 1856?

In South Carolina, at a fort named Fort Sumter in  Charleston harbor   


Preston Brooks


What was Johnson's biggest flaw in his plan for reconstruction?

He grew up as a poor southerner and hated the southern plantation aristocracy

He adopted Lincoln's 10% policy, but he was much more lenient by making the southern elite beg for pres. pardons. And because of that, much of the CSA leadership got positions of policy making within the American Government and they enacted the Jim Crow Laws


What is vertical integration? 


Name some parts of the American Dream

Whenever a person or business sets out to own every step or aspect of production, assembly, and transportation.






•Service to the Community

•Quality of Place


What was a Tenement Building

Low cost dumbbell shaped buildings that provided housing for the growing urban population (mostly immigrants and their entire families)


There was allegory for this time and what was it represented by? 

The Wizard of OZ


How did the Union, specifically General "unconditional surrender" Grant approach war that was different from the CSA or General Lee? 

Grant was not romanticize war

During the Siege of Vicksburg he... 

did not allow citizens to evacuate

left dead out in the fields to rot

understood war of attrition and knew the war was in his favor


What was the goal of the Black Codes and Jim Crow after the failure of Reconstruction?

To keep the status que of racial superiority as the same as antebellum (pre Civil War) south.

Thereby denying American Americans the...

13,14, and 15 Amendment


What was the three parts of Carnegie's Gospel of Wealth?

The Carnegie Dictum

•First third of life, learn as much as you can.

•Second third of life, earn as much as you can.

•The Last third of life, give as much as you can.


How did the idea of a Union form or what was a union. And how did it become stigmatized aganist

The idea was a group of workers that were united against oppressive business owners and they were meant to collectively protect the workers.

They became stigmatized whenever strikes became violent like the Haymarket Square Incident 


Who was Jane Adams and the Hull House

She was a middle class woman who visited East London for a graduation gift.

She saw special boarding homes meant for the needy and sought to recreate them in the US.

•“A community of university women” - protect against abusive men

•The 3 R’s: residence, research, reform

•Social and Educational opportunities for women and immigrants


Bleeding Kansas (1855 -Pre Civil War)

What were the two prevailing ideological groups that were involved and why were their opposing views an issue?

The Missouri Pro-slavers and the Kansas Abolitionists

Popular Sovereignty was the political policy of the time, where each new inducted state was given a state referendum to decide whether the state would be a free state or a slave state. 


What did the Radical Republicans want for reconstruction?

•Reorganized the South into 5 military districts.  TN exempt

•Each state had to draft a new state constitution, which would have to be approved by Congress.

•The states also were required to ratify the 14th Amendment and recognize black male suffrage

•The Federal military in each district oversaw the elections and the registration of voters


What/who was the Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor, 1869 and what are some things they wanted?

•Founded by Uriah Stephens

•28,000 members by 1880

•Reorganized by Terence Powderly in 1873


•8 hour work day

•End of child labor

•End convict labor

•Graduated income tax

•Balloons to 800,000 as part of reorganization.  Vertical integration of labor except for Asian workers

•Their numbers were there downfall


Who was William Jennings Bryan and what did he advocate for?

"The Great Commoner"

•Famous orator and politician from Nebraska

•Ran as Democratic Presidential nominee three times

•“Cross of Gold” Speech

•Bimetallism: create a fixed rate of exchange between gold and silver.  16:1


What was Social Darwinism and Eugenics

Social Darwin was the pseudo science or common belief that others were inherently better than others and was often measured how well they did in society

Eugenics was the artificial selective breeding of humans for favorable or desired societal traits


What were some reasons why the CSA failed while the United States Prevailed? 

Provide at least three

Most factories were in the north; higher population base with new immigrants arriving everyday, while south troops dwindled after every battle; had a naval; transportation (canals, RR);  political stability ; Anaconda Plan; and had credit and way more money


Why did Reconstruction collapse?

The Northern public was becoming apathetic and wanted to pull out of the south and stop federal reconstruction

The Radical Republicans' were slipping from power

There was the messy election of 1876 and a series of compromises made the federal government withdraw from the southern states


What was the Pullman Strike?


What was the role of Eugene Debs in the Pullman Strike?

The Pullman strike was a strike against an odd railroad company that make luxury box cars and controlled every aspect of its workers lives in Pullman, IL

Eugene Debs was the President of the American Railway and refuse to work on any train using Pullman cars


What was the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire?

A horrific incident were 123 seamstress died in a warehouse sweat shop fire and it horrified the public since the building was 10 stories building and many of the women choose to jump to their deaths

Eventually lead to safer working conditions and fire safety laws like occupation capacity or unlocked doors


Who was a Granger

Supported by farmers in the west and was upset with Corrupt Railroad companies 

Also promoted corporation between farmers