Vocabulary
Type of reading skills
Type of writing skills
Application of a different reading skill
Application of a different writing skill
100

Tenacity

quality of being determined or of holding fast

100

Central Ideas

A central idea is an overarching message or truth that is specific to a text. Central ideas are the key points authors make and the ones they want you to remember most. Central ideas may be directly stated in a text, but more often they are implied. This means you must sometimes use key supporting details in the text to infer central ideas. But remember: All central ideas are supported by relevant details and facts in the text.


100

Relevance, Sufficiency, and Validity in Evidence


When you are writing an objective summary, it is especially important to determine if the evidence presented in a text is relevant. In a brief, factual summary, there is simply no room to provide extraneous, irrelevant details.

100

Rhetorical triangle

The Rhetorical Triangle is composed of three parts: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos. 

Logos appeals to reason. Logos can also be thought of as the text of the argument, as well as how well a writer has argued his/her point. Ethos appeals to the writer’s character. Ethos can also be thought of as the role of the writer in the argument, and how credible his/her argument is. Pathos appeals to the emotions and the sympathetic imagination, as well as to beliefs and values. Pathos can also be thought of as the role of the audience in the argument.

100

Application of evidence

Authors use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries as evidence. Authors use each type of evidence for specific reasons, and they carefully decide which kind of evidence to use in each case.

200

Delude

to persuade into erroneous thinking; mislead

200

Toulmin Model of Argument

The Toulmin Model of Argument describes a way of structuring logical arguments. Understanding its elements can help you evaluate the arguments of others. If any element of this model is missing, the argument may have logical flaws that affect its validity. There are five primary components of the Toulmin Model of Argument: claim, reasons, evidence, anticipated counterclaim (or rebuttal), and warrant (or backing).

200

General versus Specific Information


If an author cites a statistic to support a claim, you probably don't need to include the exact statistic and its source in your summary. Instead, you could summarize the author's point by evaluating what this statistic is meant to communicate, and stating this outright in your summary. Including evidence that is too specific makes a summary too long and too detailed. A summary should be brief and to the point.

200

Syntax 

Authors use simple sentences to present information in a matter-of-fact way. Simple sentences provide emphasis when authors are describing actions or events, and they convey ideas clearly and concisely.

200

objective summary

When you write an objective summary of an informational text, you must briefly cover the most essential points, or central ideas, of the text. This includes not only recognizing the obvious explicit meaning of a text, but also uncovering any implied meaning that is subtly conveyed through tone, style, or word choice.

300

Equitable

fair and equal 

300

What Is Evidence, Exactly?

The information that authors provide as support or proof for their opinions, claims, or central ideas is evidence. Readers of informational text can find evidence in various places. If the evidence is the author’s own information, it might be stated outright. An author can also supply information from other sources.

300

Looking for Credible and Current Information

(Valid Research articles)

Valid research sources can include

  • academic journals
  • newspapers and magazines
  • books
  • informational videos
  • print and digital encyclopedias
  • credible websites and other online sources
  • public libraries (ask a librarian!)
300

Parallel Structure

Using parallel structure means to repeat a pattern of a chosen grammatical form, giving the same level of significance to two or more ideas.

300

Recognizing Purpose and Audience

Words like social engineering, distinguish, and co-existent reveal aspects of this text’s purpose and audience.

400

Misnomer

an incorrect term used to describe or designate something

400

Elements of an Argument

Argument is a logical approach to persuasion and rhetoric. It uses logos, rather than pathos or ethos. Learning about a model of argument called the Toulmin Model will help you evaluate the validity of arguments.

400

what is unique about informational text

  • objective tone
  • formal style
  • complex, precise, and domain-specific vocabulary and jargon
400

Diction 

Diction is another term for word choice. Just as authors use varied stylistic choices for effect, they choose specific words to convey meanings and perspectives they want readers to experience through their writing

400

 Implied Meaning through Style, Tone, and Word Choice

Identifying style, tone, and word choice is an essential skill for uncovering the task, purpose, and audience for a text in which those aspects are not explicitly stated.

500

Veracity

truthfulness or accuracy

500

Toulmin Model of Argument

The Toulmin Model of Argument describes a way of structuring logical arguments. Understanding its elements can help you evaluate the arguments of others. If any element of this model is missing, the argument may have logical flaws that affect its validity. There are five primary components of the Toulmin Model of Argument: claim, reasons, evidence, anticipated counterclaim (or rebuttal), and warrant (or backing).

500

what types of writing does tone really matter?

  • a text to a friend
  • a letter as part of a scholarship application
  • a business memo asking for an update on a corporate policy
500

Voice

Voice, sometimes referred to as persona 

An author can express voice through features such as

  • humor
  • anecdotes
  • real-life experiences or stories
  • expert findings or research
  • feelings or opinions about the topic or subject
500

Summarizing Evidence


  • Is the evidence substantive enough to include?
  • How can it be summarized concisely and objectively?
  • Can two or more types of evidence presented in a text be combined for a summary?
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