Excretory & Miscelaneous


An individual eats a hamburger. Which two systems must interact to transfer the nutrients in the hamburger to human muscle tissue?

A) respiratory and excretory

B) digestive and immune

C) digestive and circulatory

D) circulatory and respiratory

(C.) Digestive and Circulatory


Identify each of the following blood vessels:

1. Thin and usually the site of diffusion

2. Carries blood away from the heart

3. Carries blood to the heart

1. Capillary

2. Artery

3. Vein


When leg muscles respond to a stimulus by moving the foot, the response depends most directly on the functioning of

A) bronchioles
B) nephrons
C) capillaries
D) neurons

D. Neurons


An immune response is primarily due to the body's white blood cells recognizing

A) hormone imbalance

B) abiotic organisms

C) foreign antigens

D) known antibiotics

C. Foreign Antigens


What is are three main organs of the excretory system?

Kidneys, Skin and Lungs


In humans, structures that absorb most of the products of digestion are the

A) ducts of the pancreas
B) cells of the esophagus
C) villi of the small intestine
D) muscular folds of the gallbladder

(C.) Villi of the small intestine


Explain what would happen to an individual with food in their trachea.

They would choke.


After a hormone enters the bloodstream, it is transported throughout the body, but the hormone affects only certain cells. 

Part A: Name the structures on the that allow the hormone to affect that cell

Part B: Describe how the hormone is able to deliver its message to only specific cells. 

Part A: Cell receptors or receptor molcules

Part B: The hormone must have a matching shape with the cell receptor.


An immune response to a usually harmless environmental substance is known as ____________.

an allergy


Choose an organelle for each body system and explain how they carry out similar functions.

Nervous & Endocrine



Nervous & Endocrine = Nucleus (regulates all cell activities)

Digestive = Chloroplast (creates nutrition within the cell)

Excretory = Cell Membrane (wastes must pass through to be removed from the cell)

** Answers May Vary **


Explain how digested food particles are able to be used by cells. 

Nutrients diffuse through the villi of the small intestine and are transported by the circulatory system to the rest of the body. 


Part A: What is the main function of gas exchange

A) To remove carbon dioxide and supply oxygen to the body
B) To remove oxygen from the body
C) To supply carbon dioxide and remove oxygen from the body
D) To supply water to the body cells

Part B: Identify the site of gas exchange within the lungs.

Part A: (A.)

Part B: Alveoli


If body temperature is too high, some blood vessels increase in size and sweat glands will excrete sweat, resulting in a lower body temperature or if body temperatures are too low muscles contract and shiver to generate heat. These changes are an example of a (Part A:) _______________________. 

Part B: Provide another example of this phenomenon in the body.

Part A: feedback mechanism/loop

Part B: glucose and insulin/glucagon


Discuss a malfunction of the immune system and explain the effect this malfunction has on maintaining homeostasis.

HIV- attacks the white blood cells of the immune system making it very difficult for it to respond to other pathogens. 


Describe a malfunction of the excretory system and explain a way that it can be remediated. 

Renal (Kidney) Failure: Kidney transplant/ Dialysis

Urinary Tract Infection: Antibiotics

**Answers May Vary **


What muscular contraction forces food to move down to your stomach after it is swallowed?



Name 4 components that make up  the blood and explain the function of each.

A. Platelets- blood clotting

B. White Blood Cells- fight infection

C. Plasma- liquid component (keeps cells moving)

D. Red Blood Cells- carry O2 and CO2


Neurons are to (A.)_____________________ as endocrine glands are to (B.) __________________.

(A.) neurotransmitters

(B.) hormones


Explain why an organ transplant recipient has to take immunosuppressant drugs immediately following surgery. 

-to prevent their body from attacking the new organ

-because their body may not recognize the antigens on the outside of the new organ and could attack it.


Describe one example of diffusion in the human body. In your description be sure to:

• identify the place where diffusion takes place
• identify a substance that diffuses there
• identify where that substance diffuses from and where it diffuses to, at that place

** Answers May Vary**

Alveoli, CO2/O2, From Alveoli to blood stream

Body Cells, CO2/O2, from blood stream to cell/ from cell to blood stream

Small Intestine, Glucose/Nutrients, villi of small intestine to blood stream

Blood stream, Glucose/Nutrients, From blood stream into body cells


Choose another body system and explain how it functions with the digestive system.


Describe the way in which the circulatory and respiratory systems work together to carry out their function. 

The respiratory system brings in oxygen and the circulatory transports the oxygen around the body for cells to use. 


Molecules in a certain medication attach to receptors on nerve cells. This prevents the normal chemical signal from binding to the receptor and delivering the pain message. One immediate result of taking this medication might be a disruption in the ability of: _______________________

Cell communication

The function of the nervous system

The body to feel/recognize pain

** Answers May Vary **


Immunization protects the human body from disease. The success of vaccinations can be seen in the fact that smallpox has been eliminated worldwide from the list of common infectious diseases. The only remaining smallpox viruses on Earth are thought to be those kept in certain research laboratories.

• what is in a vaccine

• how a vaccine promotes immunity

• one advantage of the use of vaccinations to fight bacterial diseases

• a dead or weakened form of the virus

• stimulates antibody production

• usually you will not get the virus / it provides immunity that lasts a long time


Explain why a runner on a hot sunny day may not have to use the bathroom as frequently as a secretary in a cool, air conditioned office. Throughout the day they both drink the same amount of water, but the secretary has to use the bathroom 3x and the runner only 1x.

The runner is losing excess water as sweat so the kidneys do not collect as much water from the bloodstream.

The runners body will try to conserve water because it is losing so much water as sweat.