Energy
Energy Transfer
Relationships
Energy Pyramids
Variety
100

A toy store sells a toy called a jack-in-the-box. When the box opens, a clown comes out by the movement of a spring and produces a laughing sound by using the energy stored in a battery.

Which type of potential energy do the spring and battery have?

• A The spring has elastic potential energy, and the battery has chemical potential energy.
• B The spring has gravitational potential energy, and the battery has elastic potential energy.
• C The spring has chemical potential energy, and the battery has elastic potential energy.
• D The spring has chemical potential energy, and the battery has gravitational potential energy.

A The spring has elastic potential energy, and the battery has chemical potential energy.

100

Patrick is working with a corded drill. He observes that when he presses the trigger, the drill bit rotates and helps to drill a hole in the wall.

Which energy transformation is taking place in this process?

• A chemical energy to electrical energy
• B electrical energy to chemical energy
• C electrical energy to mechanical energy
• D mechanical energy to electrical energy

C electrical energy to mechanical energy

100

Which statement is an example of mutualism?

• A A koala eats eucalyptus leaves, and it is unharmed by the poison in the leaves.
• B A deer tick feeds on the blood of a deer, and the deer loses blood and nutrients.
• C A plover bird feeds on food stuck in a crocodile’s teeth, and the crocodile gets its teeth cleaned in the process.
• D A hookworm feeds on the small intestine of a dog, causing the dog to lose weight and become weak.

C A plover bird feeds on food stuck in a crocodile’s teeth, and the crocodile gets its teeth cleaned in the process.

100

Study the diagram of an energy pyramid for an environment.

What happens to energy as it moves up the pyramid?

• A Energy availability increases.
• B Energy availability decreases.
• C Energy production outweighs energy consumption.
• D Energy production and consumption become equal.

B Energy availability decreases.

100

A student collects a soil sample from a prairie grassland. Which substance in the soil sample is classified as abiotic?

• A bacteria
• B insect larva
• C rock particles
• D worms

What type of weather is associated with Low Pressure systems?  What type of weather is associated with High Pressure systems?

C rock particles

Low Pressure-Storms

High Pressure-Mild, Clear Skies

200

Which activity uses elastic potential energy?

• A eating a hamburger
• B stretching a rubber band
• C throwing a ball
• D pulling a wagon

Which person demonstrates gravitational potential energy?

• A A boy sits at the top of a slide.
• B A man walks a dog.
• C A woman reads a book.
• D A girl kicks a ball.

B stretching a rubber band

A A boy sits at the top of a slide.

200

A ball is pushed off of a block of wood and falls toward the ground. The diagram shows the various positions (1, 2, 3, and 4) of the ball during its fall.

At which position will the ball possess the greatest speed?

• A position 1
• B position 2
• C position 3
• D position 4

Examine the diagram of the movement of a cart with four positions (W, X, Y, and Z) labeled, as shown.

At which position will the cart have the greatest amount of kinetic energy?

• A W
• B X
• C Y
• D Z

D position 4

D Z

200

Chameleons have clamp-like feet and long tongues. Many species of chameleons possess prehensile tails which are adapted to hold onto other objects. Some species of chameleons can change colors according to the colors of their surroundings.

Which characteristic is influenced by the environment?

• A clamp-like feet
• B long tongue
• C prehensile tail
• D skin color

D skin color

200

Use the diagram that shows a river basin food web to answer the question.

Which organism represents a producer?

• A Coyote
• B Live Oak
• C Swallowtail
• D Wild Turkey

Use the diagram that shows an energy pyramid to answer the question.

Which animal in the pyramid represents an herbivore?

• A grasshopper
• B owl
• C snake
• D tree

B Live Oak

A grasshopper

200

The flathead catfish is an invasive predatory species of fish. What would be the effect of the introduction of the flathead catfish on the native fish in the rivers of the United States?

• A The populations of native fish would become extinct.
• B The populations of native fish would increase.
• C The populations of native fish would decrease.
• D The populations of native fish would remain unaffected.

What happens as latitude increases?

• C The populations of native fish would decrease.

As latitude increases, temperatures decrease.

300

Which type of energy in gasoline powers automobiles?

• A chemical potential energy
• B elastic potential energy
• C electromagnetic potential energy
• D gravitational potential energy

Four people are holding a ball of equal size and weight at four different heights (W, X, Y, and Z).

At which height will a ball have the most  gravitational potential energy?

• A W
• B X
• C Y
• D Z

A chemical potential energy

A W

300

The table shows four moving objects with different masses and speeds.

Which object has the most kinetic energy?

• A Object 1
• B Object 2
• C Object 3
• D Object 4

Which factors affect the amount of kinetic energy of an object?

• A height and mass
• B height and volume
• C speed and mass
• D speed and volume

D Object 4

C speed and mass

300

The diagram shows a food chain.

• A by feeding on the gray slug
• B by feeding directly on the lichens
• C by being preyed upon by the grass snake
• D by competing with other common toads
• A by feeding on the gray slug
300

The image shows an energy pyramid.

Which statement is true for the energy pyramid?

• A The sea lion has more energy available to it than the algae.
• B The herring has more energy available to it than the sea lion.
• C The algae and the herring have the same amount of energy available.
• D The killer whale and the sea lion have the same amount of energy available.
• B The herring has more energy available to it than the sea lion.
300

An invasive fish species feeds on suspended plankton and algae in water. Within its five-year lifespan a single fish produces about 5 million eggs, 100,000 of which reach adulthood.

How can the introduction of the invasive fish species affect the aquatic ecosystem?

• A It increases the amounts of suspended plankton and algae in the water.
• B It increases the productivity of the ecosystem due to a greater number of consumers.
• C It decreases the biodiversity of the ecosystem due to a rapid increase in the number of fish.
• D It decreases the amounts of food available to native aquatic species that depend on plankton and algae.

A student draws a diagram representing some processes that happen due to the heat of the Sun in a coastal region.

Which process is taking place due to heat transfer by convection?

• A evaporation of seawater
• B heating of land by Sun
• C formation of sea breeze
• D transpiration from trees

• D It decreases the amounts of food available to native aquatic species that depend on plankton and algae.
• C formation of sea breeze
400

A student constructs a circuit using a bulb, battery, switch, and connecting wires, as shown.

The student closes the switch for 20 minutes, moves a hand over the bulb, and feels that it is hot. Which describes the flow of energy transformations observed in the circuit?

• A
• B
• C

A

400

A bowling ball and baseball move at the same speed.

How does the kinetic energy of each ball compare, and why?

• A The bowling ball has greater kinetic energy because it has more mass than the baseball.
• B The baseball has greater kinetic energy because it has less mass than the bowling ball.
• C The bowling ball has less kinetic energy because it has a larger volume than the baseball.
• D The bowling ball and the baseball have the same kinetic energy because they have the same speed.

A The bowling ball has greater kinetic energy because it has more mass than the baseball.

400

Which diagram most accurately shows the flow of energy in an environment?

• A
• B
• C
• D

A

400

The image shows an energy pyramid.

Which level of the energy pyramid has the most energy?

• A level R
• B level S
• C level T
• D level U

A level R

400

What causes the formation of ocean currents?

• A rotation of Earth on its axis
• B change in the magnetic field of Earth
• C temperature differences of water in the ocean
• D movement of tectonic plates under Earth’s surface

Which statement best describes why sea breezes form?

• A Water warms and cools more slowly than land.
• B Water warms and cools more quickly than land.
• C Land and water warm and cool at the same rates.
• D Land and water are unable to change temperatures.
• C temperature differences of water in the ocean
• A Water warms and cools more slowly than land.
500

A stone is placed in a thick rubber band. The rubber band is stretched and then released. The stone rises in the air and then falls down.

Which option correctly identifies an instance when potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy?

• A releasing the rubber band
• B stretching the rubber band
• C stone rising in the air
• D stone reaching its highest point in the air

A releasing the rubber band

500

The Sun heats the surface of a road during the day. The arrows in the image show the direction of the movement of cold and hot air.

What are the modes of heat transfer involved?

• A condensation and conduction
• B conduction and convection

500

Which process(es) allow(s) ocean currents like the Gulf Stream to move warm water around the world?

• A conduction only
• B convection only

A student leaves a metal spoon in a mug of hot chocolate and answers the phone. When the student returns, the metal spoon is warm to the touch.

Which transfer of thermal energy occurs between the hot chocolate and the metal spoon?

A conduction

B convection

C electromagnetism

A conduction

500

Reindeer in the Arctic feed on lichens during the cold winter season to obtain food energy. When the reindeer dig into the snow-covered ground to find lichens, they often uncover the burrows of small mammals (such as lemmings and voles) that live under the snow cover. The Arctic fox follows the reindeer and digs deeper in the snow to locate and eat its prey.

How is the relationship between the reindeer and the Arctic fox an example of commensalism?

• A Both animals in the relationship benefit from each other
• B Both compete for the same resources at the same time
• C One animal benefits while the other is neither harmed nor helped.
• D One of the animals in the relationship is harmed while the other is helped.
• C One animal benefits while the other is neither harmed nor helped.
500

Why does a convection current begin over the equatorial region?

• A Equatorial latitudes receive more direct sunlight, and this energy is re-radiated from the land as it cools in the form of cooler air, which falls.
• B Equatorial latitudes receive indirect sunlight, and this energy is re-radiated from the land as it cools in the form of cooler air, which rises.
• C Equatorial latitudes receive more direct sunlight, and this energy is re-radiated from the land as it cools in the form of warmer air, which rises.
• D Equatorial latitudes receive indirect sunlight, and this energy is re-radiated from the land as it cools in the form of warmer air, which falls.

Which properties of polar ocean water likely drive the movement of ocean currents around the globe?

• A salinity and density only
• B temperature and salinity only
• C temperature and density only
• D temperature, salinity, and density
• C Equatorial latitudes receive more direct sunlight, and this energy is re-radiated from the land as it cools in the form of warmer air, which rises.
• D temperature, salinity, and density