Cells/Composition
Fractures
Head/Neck Bones
Extremities/Other Bones
Bone Formation/Maintenance

100

Bone-forming cells that secrete the bone matrix. They secrete unmineralized bone matrix that includes collagen and calcium-binding proteins.

Osteoblasts

100

An incomplete break across the bone, such as a crack.

Partial fracture

100

Forms the forehead, the roofs of the orbits (aka- eye sockets), and most of the front part of the cranial floor.

Frontal bone

100

Attach bones of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton.

Pectoral girdles

100

The conversion of  cartilage or other connective tissue into bone.

Ossification

200

Mitotically active stem cells found in the membranous periosteum and endosteum. When stimulated, these cells differentiate into osteoblasts.

Osteoprogenitor cells

200

The broken ends of the bone protrude through the skin.

Open (compound) fracture

200

Form the lower sides of the cranium and part of the cranial floor. There are two of these bones. 

Temporal bones

200

The longest and largest bone of the upper limb. At the shoulder, it articulates with the scapula, and at the elbow, it articulates with the ulna and radius.

Humerus

200

Hormone that is secreted by the anterior lobe of pituitary gland; promotes general growth of all body tissues, including bone

Human growth hormone (hGh)

300

Mature bone cells that occupy spaces (lacunae) that conform to their shape. Osteocytes monitor and maintain the bone matrix. They also act as stress sensors and respond to mechanical stimuli. They also trigger bone remodeling.

Osteocytes

300

Bone is crushed. Common in porous bones subjected to extreme trauma.

Compression fracture

300

Forms the posterior part and most of the base of the cranium.

Occipital bone

300

It functions to increase the leverage of the tendon in the quadriceps, maintain the position of the tendon when the knee is flexed, and to protect the knee joint.

Patella

300

Active form (calcitriol) is produced by the kidneys; helps build bone by increasing absorption of calcium from GI tract into blood deficiency caused faulty calcification and slows down bone growth.

Vitamin D

400

Very large, multi-nucleated cells located at sites of bone resorption. When actively resorbing (breaking down) bone, they lie in a shallow depression.

Osteoclasts

400

Ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone. Common sports fracture.

Spiral fracture

400

These two bones form the prominence of the cheeks and part of the lateral wall and floor of each orbit.

Zygomatic

400

Technical name for the ankle bone

Talus

400

Hormone that is secreted by parathyroid glands; promotes bone resorption by osteoclasts, enhanced recovery of calcium ions from urinal promotes formation of active form of vitamin D (calcitriol)

PTH (parathyroid hormone)

500

What type of substance makes up ~65% of bone mass (be specific- the name of the compound).

Hydroxyapatites; mostly calcium phosphates

Mineral salts

500

Bone breaks incompletely. Only one side of the shaft breaks, and the other side bends. Common in children.

Greenstick fracture

500

The largest, strongest facial bone and the only movable skull bone.

Mandible

500

Located in the neck between the mandible and larynx. It supports the tongue and provides attachment sites for some tongue muscles of the neck and pharynx. It is often fractured during strangulation.

Hyoid bone

500

Needed for synthesis of bone proteins; deficiency leads to abnormal protein production in bone ECM and decreased bone density.

Vitamin K and B12